Cellular Metabolism - Cellular Metabolism I Metabolism A...

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Cellular Metabolism I. Metabolism A. Metabolism – refers to all chemical reactions occurring in the body 1. Catabolism – break down complex molecules a. Exergonic – produce (releases) more energy than they consume b. Catabolic reactions include: 1) Glycolysis, Krebs, and ETS c. This energy is used for: 1) Movement 2) Growth 3) Muscle contraction 4) Na + - K + pump 5) Endocytosis and Exocytosis B. Anabolism – combine simple molecules into complex ones C. Endergonic – consume more energy than they produce D. Anabolic reactions include: 1. ATP formation 2. Protein synthesis 3. Lipid formation 4. DNA replication 5. Hormone production E. Metabolism = catabolism + anabolism II. Adenosine Triphosphate – ATP A. The “energy currency” of the cell B. Short term storage C. ATP
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1. When the terminal PO 4 is split off of ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate group are formed – energy is released 2. Conversion from ATP to ADP is an extremely crucial reaction. Just the cutting of one bond is sufficient to liberate about 7.3 kilocalories per mole = 30.6 kJ/mol. This is about the same as the energy in a single peanut. III. Oxidation – Reduction Reactions 1. Oxidation – the removal of electrons (hydrogen atoms) a. Decrease in potential energy b. Exergonic reaction c. Liberated hydrogen transferred by coenzymes: 1) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) 2) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) d. Glucose is oxidized C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 --> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O 2.
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