Chapter 27 powerpoint notes - Chapter 27 I II Fluid...

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Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis I. Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis A. In adults, body fluids make up between 55% and 65% of total body mass. B. Body fluids are present in two main compartments—inside cells (2/3) and outside cells (1/3) . C. Intracellular fluid is cytosol . D. Extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid (80%) and blood plasma (20%) II. Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis A. The plasma membrane of cells separates intracellular fluid from interstitial fluid. B. Blood vessel walls divide the interstitial fluid from blood plasma. C. Capillary walls are thin enough to allow exchange of water and solutes between blood plasma and interstitial fluid. D. Filtration , reabsorption , diffusion and osmosis allow continuous exchange of water and solutes among body fluid compartments.
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E. The balance of inorganic compounds that dissociate into ions ( electrolytes ) is closely related to fluid balance. F. The body gains water by ingestion and metabolic synthesis . G. The body loses water via urination , perspiration , exhalation and in feces . H. The level of aerobic respiration determines the volume of metabolic water formed. The amount of water formed is directly proportional to the amount of ATP produced. I. When water loss is greater than water gain, dehydration occurs leading to increased thirst . J. Elimination of excess body water occurs through urine production . K. The amount of urinary salt loss is the main factor determining body fluid volume . L. The two main solutes in urine are sodium ions (Na + ) and chloride ions (Cl ) .
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