Cardiovscular System Exercise - Cardiovascular System...

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Cardiovascular System: Intrinsic Conduction System 1. The intrinsic conduction system consists of _______________ ____________ cells that initiate and distribute _______________ throughout the heart. 2. The intrinsic conduction system coordinates heart activity by determining the direction and speed of ________________. This leads to a coordinated heart contraction. 3. List the functions for the following parts of the intrinsic conduction system: a. SA node ____________________________ b. Internodal pathway __________________________ c. AV node ____________________________ d. AV bundle (bundle of His) ____________________________ e. Bundle branches __________________________ f. Purkinje fibers ____________________________ 4. The action potentials spread from the autorhythmic cells of the intrinsic conduction system (electrical event) to the ______________ cells. The resulting mechanical events cause a heartbeat. 5. A tracing of the electrical activity of the heart is called a/an ________________. 6. What do the following wave forms reflect? a. P wave ____________________________ b. QRS complex ____________________________ c. T wave ____________________________ 7. In a normal ECG wave tracing, atrial repolarization is hidden by the ___________________. 8. Electrical events lead to mechanical events. For example, the P wave represents ____________ depolarization, which leads to atrial _____________. 9. A left bundle branch block would have a wider than normal wave for the ____________. (Quiz section) 10. An abnormally fast heart rate (over 100 beats per minute) is called ______________. (Quiz section) Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Action Potential 1. How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the muscle cells? _____________________ 2. Depolarizing current from the autorhythmic cells causes the ventricular muscle cells to ______________.
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3. Name the three channels essential for generating an action potential and indicate which way the ions move (circle the correct one): 1. ______________ channels into or out of 2. ______________ channels into or out of 3. ______________ channels into or out of 4. If the sodium channel or the fast calcium channels are open, the inside of the cell would be relatively more ______________. 5. The pacemaker potential is due to a/an (decreased or increased) efflux of ____ ions compared to a normal influx of ____ ions. 6. Threshold for the action potential in the SA node is at ____ mV. What channels open, causing depolarization? ______________ 7. The reversal of membrane potential causes the _____ channels to open, causing the ______________ of the membrane. 8. The ______________ pumps sodium out and potassium into the cell, restoring ion concentrations to their resting levels. 9. Where is calcium stored in the contractile cells? ______________ 10. Gap junctions allow what cations to pass into the cardiac contractile cells, causing the opening of voltage- gated sodium channels? _________________________ 11. State the voltage-gated channels responsible for the following stages of the action potential in cardiac contractile cells: 12. What channels in the autorhythmic cells allow ions to leak in, producing a pacemaker potential? (Quiz section) ______________ 13. What channels in the autorhythmic cells bring about depolarization? _____________ Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Cycle 1. Valves open in response to __________________________ on their two sides.
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2. List the chambers/vessels that the four valves connect: Chamber Valve Chamber/Vessel Pulmonary semilunar Aortic semilunar Mitral Tricuspid 3. a. Ventricular filling occurs during ______________ ventricular ____________.
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