Chapter 26 powerpoint notes - Chapter 26 I The Urinary...

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Chapter 26 The Urinary System I. The Urinary System A. Consists of the kidneys , ureters, bladder , and urethra B. Maintains homeostasis by managing the volume and composition of fluid reservoirs, primarily blood II. Homeostatic Kidney Functions A. Regulation of blood ionic composition: Na+, K + , Cl B. Regulation of blood pH: H + , HCO 3 C. Regulation of blood volume: H 2 0 D. Regulation of blood pressure E. Maintenance of blood osmolarity F. Production of hormones: Calcitrol and Erythropoietin G. Regulation of blood glucose level H. Excretion of metabolic wastes and foreign substances (drugs or toxins) III. Renal Anatomy A. The kidneys are retroperitoneal, partly protected by the lower ribs.
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B. The indented area is called the Hilum. C. This is the entrance for: D. Renal Artery E. Renal Vein F. Ureter G. Nerves H. Lymphatics IV. External Layers A. Connective Tissue, , Superficial à Deep 1. Renal Fascia - Anchors to other structures 2. Adipose Capsule – Protects and anchors 3. Renal Capsule – Continuous with Ureter V. Internal Renal Anatomy A. Renal Cortex – Outer layer B. Renal Medulla – Inner region C. Renal Pyramids – Secreting Apparatus and Tubules D. Renal Columns – Anchor the Cortex VI. Path of urine drainage A. Collecting duct à papillary duct à minor calyx à major calyx à renal pelvis à ureter à urinary bladder 2
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VII. Blood and Nerve supply of the Kidneys A. Blood supply 1. Although kidneys constitute less than 0.5% of total body mass, they receive 20–25% of resting cardiac output B. Nerve Supply 1. Renal Nerves primarily carry sympathetic outflow 2. They regulate blood flow through the kidneys VIII.The Nephron A. Renal corpuscle filters the blood plasma B. Renal tubule modifies the filtrate 3
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IX. The Renal Corpuscle A. The Renal Corpuscle consists of two parts: 1. The Glomerulus is a mass of capillaries. a. It is fed by the Afferent Arteriole and drains into the Efferent Arteriole. b. Mesangial cells are contractile and help regulate glomerular filtration. 2. The Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule has a visceral layer of podocytes which wrap around the capillaries. a. The filtrate is collected between the visceral and parietal layers. X. The Renal Tubule A. The filtrate passes from the glomerular capsule à the renal tubule 1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule 2. Nephron Loop 3. Descending Loop 4. Ascending Loop 5. Distal Convoluted Tubule XI. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus A. The ascending loop contacts the afferent arteriole at the macula densa.
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