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Unformatted text preview: QUIZ QUESTIONS CRUSADES DOCUMENTS The first document is one preserved version of the famous sermon preached at the southern French town of Clermont in 1095. Clermont was the center of the tenth-century movement known as the “Peace of God”, which sought to stem violence at the local level by forcing knights to respect violence-free days. Urban had traveled there to attend a church council on the questions of simony (the selling of church offices) and clerical marriage. The Council of Clermont thus fit into this reform movement to purify the church of secular influences that began with the foundation of Cluny in 909. It also followed the Investiture Controversy that involved Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor henry IV. At this birthplace of the Peace of God, where the Church attempted to force an ascetic and apostolic life on professional religious, the Pope preached the call to Holy War against the Muslims. According to Pope Urban, why was the campaign against the Muslims necessary? How did he arouse anger against Muslims? With what sort of stereotypes did he depict Muslims? How did he remind his audience of their superiority as Christians? How does he use the biblical imagery of the Exodus? Who would Urban’s audience personify the Children of Israel? How would apocalyptic thinking color the reception of this speech on the part of Urban’s audience? What would they expect to create in the Holy Land by defeating Islam? When thought of in this way, how would this war be an acceptable Christian undertaking? How did Urban turn participation in war into a religious duty? Were the Crusaders like monks? Like pilgrims? Think of the Peace of God movement that I’ve described above. How would killing Muslims have created peace in Europe and among the Crusaders? Could this Crusade be thought of as an overseas war instigated and directed by the Pope so as to create peace in Europe? How does the call to Crusade fit into the great struggle among kings and popes? How did orchestrating a war in the Holy Land exalt papal authority? How did it shift the scales of power within Two Cities’ Theory? Why would it have been possible ONLY for a pope to have instigated and orchestrated this undertaking? The second document is a Muslim account of the Fall of Jerusalem written by Ibn al-Athir (1160-1233), an Iraqi intellectual who wrote a history of the Muslim world. What reason did Ibn al-Athir give for the Frankish conquest of Palestine? According to this account, how did the Christians treat the Muslim population of Jerusalem? What attitude did they exhibit toward the Muslim holy places in Jerusalem? How did the people of Baghdad learn of the Fall of Jerusalem? Where were they assembled when they heard the news?...
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- Spring '08
- Crusades, long time, ibn al-athir