HW for Mon Jan 25 - us or net is:er 5 ming'ersity frudie...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: us, or net is ;_ ‘- :er 5, . ming 'ersity frudie let on 1bject :s and gger-s, nts in w the Ving.” logist i that s be- at the h our )wing ‘nalist iberal d this The Pay Is Too Damn Low JAMES SUROWIECKE A few weeks ago, Washington, D. C., passed a living-Wage bill designed to make Walmart pay “ workers a minimum of $12.50 an hour. Then President Obama called on Congress to raise the federal minimum wage (which is currently $7.25 an hour). McDonalds was widely derided for releasing a budget to help its employees plan ancially, since that only underscored how bru- lint-ally hard it is to live on a McDonald 5 wage. And i: e- 3%: last week fast-food workers across the country stag ed walkouts, calling for an increase in their pay to fifteen dollars an hour. Low—wage earners have easiest to ignore. Now they re front—page news- The workers grievances are simple. low wages, few (if any) benefits, and little full— time work. In inflation—adjusted terms, the minimum wage, though higher than it was a decade ago, is still well below its 1968 peak (when it was worth about $10.70 an hour in today's dollars), and it’s still poverty-level pay. To make matters worse, most fasofood and retail work is part time, and the weak job market has eroded what little bargaining power low~wage workers had: their earnings actu— ally fell betWeen 2009 and last year, according to the National Employment Law Project Still, the reason this has become a big political issue is not that the jobs have changed; it’s that the people doing the jobs have. Historically, low-wage work tended to be done either by the young or by women looking for part—time jobs to supple— ment family income. As the historian Bethany Moreton has shown, Walmart in its early days sought explicitly to hire nnderemployed married Women. Fast—food workforces, meanwhile, were dominated by teenagers. Now, though, plenty of family breadwinners are stuck in these jobs. That’s because, over the past three decades, the US. economy has done a poor job of creating good middle—class jobs; five of the six fastest—growing job categories today pay less than the median wage. That’s why, as a recent study by the econo— mists John Schmitt and Janelle Jones has shown, low—wage workers are older and better educated than ever. More important, more of them are re- lying on their paychecks not for pin money or to pay for Friday-night dates but, rather, to support families. Forty years ago, there was no expecta— tion that fast—food or discount—retail jobs would provide a living wage, because these were not jobs that, in the main, adult heads of household did. Today, low-Wage workers provide 46 percent of their family’s income. It is that change which is driving the demand for higher pay. The situation is the result of a tectonic shift in the American economy. In 1960, the coun» try’s biggest employer, General Motors, was also its most profitable company and one of its best- paying. It had high profit margins and real pricing power, even as it was paying its workers union wages. And it was not alone: firms such as Ford, Standard Oil, and Bethlehem Steel employed huge numbers of well-paid workers while earning big profits. Today, the country’s biggest employers are retailers andfast-food chains, almost all of which have built their businesses on low pay—they’ve striven to keep wages down and unions out—.and low prices. This complicates things, in part because of the nature of these businesses. They make plenty of _ . money, but most have slim profit margins1Walmart and Target earn between three and four cents on the. dollar; a typical McDonald’s franchise restau— rant earns around six cents on the dollar before taxes, according to an analysis fiom Ianney Capital Markets. In fact, the combined profits of all the major retailers, testament chains, and supermarkets in the Fortune 500 are smaller than the profits of Apple alone. Yet Apple employs just 76,000 people, while the retailers, supermarkets, and restaurant Chains employ 5.6 million. The grim truth of those numbers is that low Wages are a big part of Why these companies are able to stay profitable while of— fering low prices. Congress is currently considering a bill increasing the minimum wage to $10.10 over the next three years. That’s an increase that the coma panics can easily tolerate, and it would make a sig— nificant difference in the lives of low-wage workers. But that’s still a long way from turning these jobs into the kind of employment that can support a middle—class family. Ifyou want to accomplish that, you have to change the entire way these companies do business. Above all, you have to get consumers to accept significantly higher, and steadily rising, prices. After decades in which we’ve grown used to cheap stuff, that won’t be easy. Realistically, then, a higher minimum wagecan be only part of the solution. We also need to expand the earned-income tax credit and strengthen the social— insurance system, including child care and health care (the advent of Obamacare will help in this regard). Fast-food jobs in Germany and the Netherlands aren’t much better—paid than in the United States, but a stronger safety net makes workers much better off. We also need many more of the “middle—class jobs” we’re always hearing about. A recent McKinsey re— port suggested that the government should invest almost a trillion dollars over the next five years in repairing and upgrading the national infrastructure, which seems like a good place to start. And we really need the economy as a whole to grow faster, because that would both increase the supply of good jobs and improve the bargaining power of low-wage workers. As Jared Bernstein, an economist at the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities told me, “The best friend that low—wage workers have is a strong economy and a right job market.” It isn’t enough to make bad jobs better. We need to create better jobs. Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe One way to show that you have listened well to an article is to summarize its argu- ment in your own words. A summary (also called an abstract, 2. pre’cis, or a synopsis) presents only a text’s major points and eliminates supporting details. Writers often incorporate summaries of other writers views into their own arguments, either to support their own views or to represent alternative views that they intend to oppose. (When opposing someone else’s argument, writers often follow the template ‘Although X contends that [summary of Xs argument], I argue that— 3’) Summaries can be any length, depending on the writer’s purpose, but usually— they range from several sentences to one or two paragraphs. To maintain your own credibility, your summary should be as neutral and fair to that piece as possible. To help you write an effective summary, we recommend the following steps: Step 1: Read therargument for general meaning. Dont judge it. Put your objections aside; just follow the writer’s meaning, trying to see the issue from the writers per- spective. Try to adopt the writer's values and belief system. Walk in the writer’s shoes. Step 2: Renaud the artitlc slowly, writing brief does and says statements for each paragraph (or group of closely connected paragraphs). A does statement identifies 3. paragraphs function, such as “summarizes an opposing vienf, “introduces a sup— porting reason,” gives an example,” or “uses statistics to support the previous point.” i CHAPTER 6 Moving’YourAudience "I'll the :' responses. A tax bill might be viewed as a “potentially fatal poison pill” or as “unpleas- ural i ant but necessary economic medicine." In each of these cases, the words create an - emotional as Well as intellectual response. I I I FOR CLASS DISCUSSION Incorporating Appeals to Forbes rour ' Outside class, rewrite the introduction to one of your previous papers (or a current agi— : draft) to include more appeals to pathos. Use any of the strategies for giving your argu-‘ e as . f ment presence: concrete language, specific examples, narratiVes, metaphors, analogies, rra- , and c'onnotative words. Bring both your original and your rewritten introductions to. ring - class. In pairs or in groups, discuss the comparative effectiveness of these introductions r. in trying to reach your intended audience. I I I sun 'ii .way Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments :2: _ 6.4 To be To increase your argument’s effectiveness, you need to consider not mpt { _ mindful of kairos only its appeals to logos, ethos, and pathos, but also its kairos—that is, [my : ‘ ' or the"timell‘ness” its timing, its appropriateness for the occasion.- Koz’ros is one of those Ling, ' of yourargument wonderful words adopted from another language (in this case, ancient are Greek) that is impossible to define, yet powerful in what it represents. In :ntly Greek, kairos means “right time," “season,” or “opportunity." It differs subtly from the ordinary Greek word for time, chronos, the root of our words “chronology” and “chronometer.” You can measure chronos by looking at your Watch, but you measure n'ng kairos by sensing the opportune time through psychological attentiveness to situ- 2nce ation and meaning. To think kairotically is to be attuned to the. total context of a ICES I . situation in order to act in the right way at the right moment. By analogy, consider I" a skilled base runner who senses the right moment to steal second, a wise teacher also i” " who senses the right moment to praise or critique a student’s performance, or a iatic ‘3- successful psychotherapist who senses the right moment to talk rather than listen live, I I in a counseling session. Kairos reminds us that a rhetorical situation is not stable and fixed, but evolves as events unfold or as audiences experience the psychologi— if :f cal ebbs and flows of attention and care. Here are some examples that illustrate the ' ' range of insights contained by the term kairos: I If you write a letter to the editor of a newspaper or post a response to a blog, you usually have a one- or two—day window before a current event becomes with - .- “old neWs” and is no longer interesting. An out-of—date response will go unread, dis— - not because it is poorly written or argued but because it misses its kairotic moment. vith (Similar instances of lost timeliness occur in class discussions: 011 how many occa- ter’s f sions have you wanted to contribute an idea to class discussion, but the professor nun- . doesn’t acknowledge your raised hand? When you finally are called on, the kairotz'c ngs, ; - moment has passed.) e or. I Bobbi Buchanan’s “Don’t Hang Up, That's My Mom Calling,” which we used to )nal ‘ illustrate pathos (page 107), could have been written only during a brief historical FHHI A , VVi’lIlng an argument period when telemarketing was being publicly debated. Moreover, it could have been written only late in that period, after numerous writers had attacked telemar~ keters. The piece was published in the New York Times because the editor received it at the right kairotic moment. I A sociology major is writing a senior capstone paper for graduation. The due date for the paper is fixed, so the timing of the paper isn’t at issue. But kairas is still rel— evant. It urges the student to consider what is appropriate for such a paper. What is the “right way” to produce a sociology paper at this moment in me history of the discipline? Currently, what are leading—edge versus trailing—edge questions in sociology? What theorists are now in vogue? What research methods would most impress a judging committee? How would a good capstone paper written in 2015 differ from one written a decade earlier? As you can see from these examples, kairos concerns a whole range of questions con— nected to the timing, fitness, appropriateness, and proportions of a message within an evolving rhetorical context. There are no rules to help you determine the kairotic moment for your argument, but being attuned to kairos will help you “read" your audi— ence and rhetorical situation in a dynamic way. Often you can establish the kairos of your argument in the opening sentences of your introduction. An introduction might mention a recent news event, political speech, legislative bill, or current societal problem that the audience may have expe- rienced, thereby using awareness of kairos to connect with the audience’s interests, knowledge, and experience. Elsewhere in your argument, attention to koiros can infuse currency and immediacy by establishing the stakes in the argument and enlist the audience’s concern. For example, if you were going to argue that your university’s- policy on laptops in the classroom is too restrictive, you might enhance your argument by mentioning several recent editorials in your campus neWSpaper on this subject. If you were going to argue for increased urban gardening in your city, you might site a recent TED talk on successful experiments With urban gardening. Ifyou are creating a text that includes images, you might also establish kairos through a photograph or cartoon that signals appropriate currency. Thinking about koz‘ros helps you focus on the public conversation your argument is joining and on the interests, knowledge, and . Values of your audience. FOR CLASS DISCUSSION Analyzing an Argument from the Perspectives of Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos Your instructor will select an argument for analysis. Working in small groups or as a Whole class, analyze the assigned argument first from the perspective of kairos and then from the perspectives of logos, ethos, and pathos. 1. As you analyze the argument from the perspective of kairos, consider the following questions: ‘ a. What is the motivating occasion for this argument? That is, what causes this writer to put pen to paper or fingers to keyboard? a “2.... he b. What conversation is the writer joirung? Who are the other voices in this con- d have lemar- versation? What are these voices saying that compels the writer to add his or :ceived her own voice? How was the stage set to create the kairotic moment for this argument? ue date c. Who is the writer’s intended audience and Why? .1311 r 31" d. What is the writer’s purpose?- Toward what view or action is the writer trying to " What persuade his or her audience? - tory Pf e. To what extent can various features of the argument be eitp'lained by. ”I mm m understanding of its kairotic moment? d most 2. Now analyze the same argument for its appeals to logos, ethos, and pathos. How 11 2015 successful is this argument in achieving its writer’s purpose? I I I 13 con- ' ' “@1131 -,_"-Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos {3:33; 7 l6.5 To explain One of the most powerful ways to move your audience is to use photos or how images make other images that can appeal to logos, ethos, pathos, and koiros in one glance. atences ,. visual appeals (Chapter 9 focuses exclusively on visual rhetoric—the persuasive power of ,ofifical to logoset'hos, images.) Although many written arguments do not lend themselves to e expe— , pathos, and kairos visual illustrations, we suggest that when you construct arguments you con- iterests, - side'r the potential of visual support. Imagine that your argument were to be ros can delivered as a PowerPoint presentation or appear in a newspaper, in a magazine, or 'on d enlist a Web site where space would be provided for one or two visuals. What photographs or “31.51th drawings might help persuade your auditmce toward your perspective? mment When images work well, they make particularly powerful appeals to pathos analo- :ject. If gous to the verbal strategies of concrete language, specific illustrations, narratives, and 1t site a connotative Words. The challenge in using visuals is to find material that is straight— :reating forward enough to be understood without elaborate explanations, that is timely and raph or relevant, and that clearly adds impact to a specific part of your argument. As an mm on example, suppose you are writing an argument supporting fund~raising efforts to help tge, and a third—world country that has recently experienced a natural catastrophe. To add ' a powerful appeal to pathos, you might consider incorporating into your argument the photograph shown in Figure 6.1 of the devastation and personal loss caused by typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in 2013. A photograph such as this one can evoke a as strong emotional and imaginative response as well as make viewers think. or as a I I l FOR WRITING AND DISCUSSION Analyzing Images as Appeals MyWritingLab'" ms and - to Pathos _ _, Individual task: Use the following questions to analyze thephoto in Figure 6.1. 'l-lOWing ' 9 1. How would you describe the emotional/imaginative impact of Figure 6.1? What _.- - details of the photo specifically create its appeal to pathos? ses this ' " __ 2. Many disaster—relief photos seek to convey the magnitude of the destruction and. suffering, sometimes shockingly, by depicting destroyed buildings, mangled I I4 FHHI 2. ertlng an Argument ' i 5 FIGURE 6.1 Photo a‘fterTyphoon Haiyan in the Philippines E - bodies, and images of human misery. How is your response to Figure 6.1 ' similar to or different from your response to commonly encountered close- up photographs of grief—stricken victims or to distance shots of widespread destruction? To what extent is Figure 6—1’s story-wtold from the perspective of a child—different from the more typical photographs of destroyed buildings or anguished faces? 3. After searching the Web for other photos taken after typhoon Haiyan, write a rationale for why you would, or would not, choose this photo to accompany a proposal argument appealing for support for people in this region of‘ the Philippines. Group task: Share your individual analysis and rationale with others in your class. I I I 'I 'I (1 PART 2 Writing an Argument | l How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal I To Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos l 6.6 To explain how We. conclude this chapter by returning to the concept of audience~ i audience—based based reasons that we introduced in Chapter 4. Audience—based reasons i l reasons appeal to enhance logos because they build on underlying assumptions (warrants) ‘ ‘ iogos ethos, pathos, that the audience is likely to accept. But they also enhance ethos, pathos, I and kairos and kairos by helping the audience identify with the writer, by appealing to shared beliefs and values, and by conveying a shared sense of an issue’s timeliness. To consider the needs of your audience, you can ask yourself the I ! following questions: ! t Questions for Analyzing Your Audience 5 i '1 . i What to Ask Why to Ask It I ' m i 1. Who is your audience? Your anSWer will help you think about audience-based reasons. : general readership of a newspaper, magazine, blog site, and so forth? I I Are your readers academics, professionals, fellow ' students, general citizens, or people with specialized I background and interests? I l l g : . . . . . I I: I Are you writing to a Single person, a committee, or the I Can you expect your audience to be politically and culturally liberal, middle of the road, conservative, I» or all over the map? What about their religious views? I I i I How do you picture your audience in terms of social i i l class, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, and l cultural identity? ' I To what extent does your audience share your own interests and cultural position? Are you writing to insiders I or outsiders with regard to your own values and beliefs? 2. How much does your audience know Your answer can especially affect-your introduction and or care ahoutyour issue? conclusion: I Do your readers need background on your issue or are they already in the conversation? . I If you are writing to specific decision makers, are they currently aware of the problem you are addressing? If not, how can you get their attention? I Does your audience care about ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern