Chapters_30-33

Chapters_30-33 - Nutrition and Food Chapter 30 What...

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Nutrition and Food Chapter 30 What Nutrients Do Animals Need? Nutrition All foods contain nutrients needed for survival Nutrition describes the process of acquiring and processing nutrients in useable form Nutrients fall into 5 major categories 1. Lipids 2. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins 4. Minerals 5. Vitamins Cells Obtain Energy from Some Nutrients Most energy used by cells is derived from carbohydrates and fats o These molecules are broken down, energy is released, and is captured in ATP The energy in nutrients is measured in calories o Calorie: amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius o Food calorie: 1000 calories (kilocalories) also known as Calories (capital C) Cells Obtain Energy from Nutrients (Table 30-1) The average human burns 70 calories per hour at rest, and up to 20 Calories per minute during exercise Lipids Specialized lipids can be synthesized by some animals, others require essential fatty acids (lipid building blocks) from their food 3 principal types of lipids o Triglycerides (Fats used as an energy source) o Phospholipids (component of cell membranes) o Cholesterol (component of cell membranes, sex hormones, and bile) Animals Store Energy as Fat Fats are excellent energy storage molecules o A concentrated energy source compared to proteins and carbohydrates o 9 calorie/g lipid; 3 calories/g carbohydrates or proteins o Animals that maintain elevated body temp. use fats to insulate their bodies Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are used as an energy source, but can have structural uses as well Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars (usually glucose), which are used to make ATP Carbohydrates consist of: o Monosaccharide sugars (i.e. glucose) o Disaccharide sugars (i.e. sucrose) o Polysaccharides (i.e. starches, glycogen, and cellulose) Proteins Are digested into amino acids, which can be used to make new proteins Functions o Enzymes o Cell membrane receptors
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o Oxygen transport molecules o Structural proteins o Antibodies o Muscle proteins o An energy source Humans can synthesize 11 of the 20 amino acids needed to make proteins Those amino acids that cannot be synthesized must be obtained in the diet (essential amino acids) Minerals (Table 30-2) Minerals are elements that are important to animal nutrition Inorganic elements or compounds Minerals can be only obtained in the diet Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds required in small amounts by animals Some vitamins function as antioxidants that bind to free radicals (damaging molecules) and help prevent them from damaging DNA Most help promote chemical reactions that supply energy or synthesize biological molecules * Know the water soluble vitamins verses fat soluble vitamins (Table 30-2) How is digestion accomplished?
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