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APA Paper - Gender Theory in Sports 1 Running Head: GENDER...

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Gender Theory in Sports 1 Running Head: GENDER THRORY IN SPORTS Gender Theory in Sports: Self-Perception, Expectations, and Performance Kathleen Cherrie Chapman University
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Gender Theory in Sports 2 Topic This paper will examine how each gender deals with the pressures placed on them as an athlete and how this affects their own self-perception and body image. Article 1— College Students’ Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports: Race and Gender Differences Because the expectations in men’s and women’s sports are very different, it is important to understand where these expectations originated and how they have affected athletes’ abilities and self esteem. The first aspect to be addressed in the article was ability and its definition, which had two main interpretations. According to Magill, a person’s ability is genetically determined and its level varies amongst individuals. The other definition is that ability is something that can be changed through learning and effort (Csikszentmihalyi, Rathunde, & Whalen, 1993). According to Safrit and Wood, as cited by Li, Harrison and Solmon, this is because the learning experience plays a very important role in one’s development and therefore partially dictates how one’s abilities turn out and through more work and effort; it can improve. There are two theories associated with these definitions of ability and they served as the foundation for the research in the article. The entity theory is associated with the viewpoint that ability is genetic and fixed while the incremental theory follows the idea that ability is malleable and able to be The purpose of this article was to present the idea that socially constructed stereotypes about race and gender have a correlation with the athletes’ self-image and performance levels. A study with 238 college students, 57 male and 62 female African Americans as well as 57 male
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Gender Theory in Sports 3 and 62 female European Americans, was conducted at a southeastern university where both academic and sports performance and perception were analyzed (Li, Harrison, & Solmon, 2004). Results from the study showed that females were more likely to follow the entity theory rather than the incremental one, meaning that they believe that their ability is limited and there is nothing they can do to change it. While the study showed the above results, it was determined that overall people believe more in the incremental theory and through hard work and effort their ability can improve (Li, Harrison, & Solmon, 2004). As with any college, the sports are focused primarily among the men’s events. At any Chapman basketball or soccer game there will be many more fans in the stands when the men are playing as opposed to when the women have games. This could potentially have an effect on the self esteem of some of the female athletes and may even discourage perspective female athletes from participating in sports on campus. The coaches probably have some knowledge of how
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APA Paper - Gender Theory in Sports 1 Running Head: GENDER...

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