Before we begin…P-E-G-ASBefore we begin…P-E-G-ASPolitical: Who controls what? What type of government is there? Anything to do with laws or war.Economic: What type of economy? How do people make a living? Geography: Where is it? Is the land mountainous? Desert? Oceanic? Advances/Social: Religious, intellectual, artistic
Ancient River Valley Ancient River Valley CivilizationsCivilizations
Sumer•Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable•No natural barriers•Limited natural resources for making tools or buildingsEgypt•Flooding of the Nile predictable•Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages•Deserts were natural barriersIndus Valley•Indus flooding unpredictable•Monsoon winds•Mountains, deserts were natural barriersChina•Huang He flooding unpredictable•Mountains, deserts natural barriers•Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizationsEarly River Valley CivilizationsEarly River Valley Civilizations
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAOldest known civilizationCradle of Human CivilizationOld Testament NebuchadnezzarZiggurat (right)Hanging gardens
In what modern day country In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent?was the Fertile Crescent?
Political: What was the earliest kingdom Political: What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? The second?in Mesopotamia? The second?
SocialSocialThe Sumerians invented writing called cuneiform.Babylonians wrote using this “wedge-shaped” writing on clay tablets.Number system based on 60.12 month calendarwheel, plow , sailboat
More cuneiform writingMore cuneiform writing
Ancient Mesopotamia Social ClassesAncient Mesopotamia Social ClassesEnslaved peopleArtisans, merchants, farmers, and fishersKings, Kings, Priests, Priests, Gov’t Gov’t officialsofficials
More zigguratsMore ziggurats
Hanging Gardens of BabyloniaHanging Gardens of Babylonia
Herodotus (historian in 450 B.C.) was quoted as saying the following: "In addition to its size, Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the known world." Outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high. Wide enough to allow a four-horse chariot to turn. Inside the walls were fortresses and temples containing immense statues of solid gold. Rising above the city was the famous Tower of Babel, a temple to the god Marduk, that seemed to reach to the heavens
Another painting of the hanging Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in backgardens with Tower of Babel in back
Economic: Trade and FarmingEconomic: Trade and FarmingTraditional EconomySumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley civilizations.In later years, these trade routes became Silk Road.