Module-7 - Module 7 Drugs and Medications Introduction to...

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Module 7: Drugs and Medications Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry deals with the study of carbon containing compounds and their reactions. Organic molecules are present in living organisms and in many products used in our everyday lives such as foods, household cleaning products, personal care products etc. As the element carbon is present in the majority of drugs used today, some basic principles of organic chemistry (the study of carbon compounds) are discussed in this section. The Element Carbon The main characteristics of carbon that lead to the formation of such a large number of organic compounds (over 10 million known) with dramatically different physical and chemical properties include the ability to form: Covalent single, double and triple bonds with some other elements, including carbon. Covalent bonds with other carbon atoms to build chains and cyclic structures. Covalent bonds with elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and halogens. In the structures shown below, each line (bond) represents a pair of electrons. Single bond: formed by the sharing of one pair of electrons. Double bond: formed by the sharing of two pairs of electrons. Triple bond: formed by the sharing of three pairs of electrons Arrangement of Atoms Among the cyclic structures, the arrangement of carbon atoms in 5- or 6-membered rings is quite common. The hexagonal (6-membered) ring with three single and three double bonds is called a benzene ring.
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Functional Groups Alcohol Aldehyde Amine
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Carboxylic Acid Ester Ether
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Ketone More examples
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Many substances encountered in our everyday lives are composed of organic compounds containing one or more of the previously menttioned functional groups. Treatment of Infections and Diseases The Use of Chemicals as Drugs This section explores the use of chemicals as drugs in the treatment of infections and diseases. A brief description of the classification and mode of action of such drugs is also presented. Overview From the Sumerians (2200 BC) to the present, the discovery and usage of drugs has gone through a number of phases such as: Medicinal preparations and concoctions from plants, minerals and animal sources. Isolation and the use of plant ingredients as medications. Synthesis and testing of a variety of chemicals as potential cures for ailments. New areas of research into marine plants and organisms as potential drugs. Molecular modeling in designing drugs. Extensive research with the available sophistication in the field of medicine has led us to engineer molecules that can be used to improve the quality of life by preventing, moderating or curing illnesses. Antibiotics Antibiotics drugs are used to fight (prevention or treatment) bacteria that cause infectious diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and so on.
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