Module-6 - Module 6 Household Products Soaps and Detergents...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Module 6: Household Products Soaps and Detergents Soaps, Detergents and our Health Soaps and detergents play a very important role in our lives. These chemicals help us in making our surroundings cleaner (i.e., by removing soil and grease), healthier (i.e., by reducing the germs), and pleasant. In order to make it more effective in the process of cleaning, the water must be made to spread and thus wet surfaces effectively, i.e., its surface tension must be reduced. This is achieved by using compounds called surfactants . What are Surfactants? Soaps and detergents are composed of surfactants Surfactants are water-soluble and surface-active agents. Surfactants are composed of a hydrophilic (water-soluble) head and a hydrophobic (fat-soluble, water-hating) tail. The hydrophilic end is stable when solubilized in water and the hydrophobic end consists of a long chain hydrocarbon that is more stable when surrounded by other organic groups. Classes of Surfactants There are different classes of surfactants categorized by the charge of the hydrophilic component of the surfactant molecule after dissociation in water: Anionic surfactants have a negative charge. Cationic surfactants have a positive charge. Non-ionic surfactants have no charge. Amphoteric surfactants have both positive and negative charges. SOAPS; Composition and Limitations of Soap Soaps (anionic surfactants) consist of the long hydrocarbon tails of fatty acids and the polar heads of sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids (found in fats and oils of animals and plants). Traditionally, soap was made from animal fat and wood ash (composed of potassium hydroxide and potassium carbonate).
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Advantages Soaps are manufactured from combinations of natural and renewable resources. Soaps are biodegradable and thus do not pollute bodies of water. Disadvantages Formation of soap film (or scum) in water containing Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions (hard water). The calcium and magnesium ions react with soap molecules to produce calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids. These salts are insoluble in water and impair the surfactant properties of soap because the amount of soap available for cleaning is reduced. Soap scum is difficult to rinse away and can be visible, i.e., on fabrics, bathtubs and sinks. Poor adaptability to diversity of fibers, washing temperatures and water conditions. Tendency to clog sewage systems due to their gelling properties.
Image of page 2
DETERGENTS; Composition and Limitations of Detergents Detergents (containing a variety of engineered anionic or non-ionic surfactants) are made from petrochemicals. Advantages Detergents are less affected by calcium and magnesium ions in water, thus acting as better cleaning agents and almost eliminating the film formation.
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern