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BIO EXAM 1 NOTES - Kate Levy BIO 135 Exam#1...

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Kate Levy BIO 135 Exam #1 EPA-Environmental Protection Agency o Committed to the protection of the natural environment What is the natural environment? o Nature o Set of all living things o Set of all physical conditions o Interactions of all living things with all physical conditions o Organism defines the environment Environmental Issues o Environment doesn’t have issues-people have issues with the environment o Ecologists-Scientists that study and observe phenomenon to understand patterns Cause and effect Ex-Not about urban sprawl, instead about the effect of it Patterns and connections-can they be predicted? How does it affect other organisms? Science vs. Hippie o The difference is that scientists use the scientific method Question/ Research/ Hypothesis/ Procedure/ Data/ Observations/ Conclusion Sustainability-Solution to environmental problems o Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Leave the world better than you found it, take no more than you need, try not to harm life or the environment, make amends if you do. o Achieving sustainability involves: 1. Agriculture, 2. Fisheries, 3. Forests and 4. Wood Products, 5. Water Supplies, 6. Energy, 7. Biodiversity, 8. Climate Change, 9. Manufacturing and Industry, 10. Justice and Equity Development-Complex set of changes which convert the economy of a society based on subsistence agriculture to one in which most of the employed inhabitants work in manufacturing or services o Includes deforestation, urbanization, and large-scale mining o Produces large amounts of pollution and waste o Countries classified as least developed, developing, and developed o Development’s Impact on the environment Harms the environment Eventually improves the environment Countries with higher capita (developed) have cleaner environments Poverty/high population growth are major causes of environmental degradation Kuznets Curves-Plot the relationship between environmental quality factors and per capita income o Does not consider international trade and the idea that wealthier countries are exporting
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some of their environmental problems to less developed countries Soils o Soils are a complex mixture of inorganic material, decaying matter, water/air, and billions of living organisms o Soil horizons-components of mature soils are arranged in a series of zones Most mature soils have at least 3 of the possible horizons (layers) Poor/new soils have little or no horizons o O-Horizon-Top Layer Freshly fallen/partially decomposed organic materials Brown/black in color o A-Horizon Topsoil layer Porous-particularly decomposed organic matter/organisms Humus-organic stuff broken down by decomposers Highly soluble in water Coats sand/silt/clay and binds them together Fertile soil as thick topsoil with a high content of humus o Topsoil color Dark brown/black-a lot of organic matter
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