Chapter 27-28 Study Guide

Chapter 27-28 Study Guide - Chapter 27 Prokaryotes 1 Define...

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Chapter 27: Prokaryotes 1. Define the following: peptidoglycan – A type of polymer in bacterial cell walls consisting of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides Gram stain – A staining method that distinguishes between two different kinds of bacterial cell walls capsule – 1.) A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some prokaryotes, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces 2.) The sporangium of bryophyte (moss, liverwort, or hornwort) taxis – Movement to or away from a stimulus nucleoid region – The region in a prokaryotic cell consisting of a concentrated mass of DNA plasmids – A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes such as yeast binary fission – The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome transformation – 1.) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell 2.) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell. conjugation – In prokaryotes, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined. In ciliates, a sexual process in which two cells exchange haploid micronuclei transduction – A DNA transfer process in which phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another. 2.) In cellular communication, the conversion of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response. endospores – A thick-coated, resistant cell produced within a bacterial cell exposed to harsh conditions. photoautotrophs – An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide
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chemoautotrophs – An organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances photoheterotrophs – An organism that uses light to generate ATP but that must obtain carbon in organic form chemoheterotrophs – An organism that must obtain both energy and carbon by consuming organic molecules saprobes – an organism that gains its nutrients from dead organisms parasites – an organism that benefits by living in or on other organism at the expense of the host nitrogen fixation – the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants obligate aerobes – an organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it facultative anaerobes – An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions signature sequences methanogens – A microorganism that obtains energy by using carbon dioxide to oxidize oxygen, producing methane as a waste extreme halophiles – a prokaryote that lives in a highly saline environment, such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea bacteriorhodopsin
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