Linguis10 S00 Quizzes for Semester- Intro to Phonology

Linguis10 S00 Quizzes for Semester- Intro to Phonology -...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Ling 10; Intro to Phonology; Winter 2000 [n-class discussion; Chapter 3 CD Bangkok Thai has four kinds of laterals, two of which (plain [ l ] and voiceless [ l ]) show up in the data below. (Long vowels are marked with a colon; [LU] denotes a high, back, unround vowel.) len ‘to play’ luzp ‘to stroke’ khlai ‘dirt’ plazu ‘empty’ ph101i ‘precious stone’ klam ‘dark red’ plUJai ‘naked’ k13:n ‘drum’ kh10:n ‘canal‘ What is the context for devoicing of the lateral? ® The data given below are from (American) English ............... voiceless obstruent+approximant.......i....v.n compareto......,,.i...v........... a. prays [pg]ays trays [tg]ays craze {kg]aze [J]ay/ [J]ed Fred [f.°l]ed thread [eg]ead [bJ]rays/ [dJ]ays / [gJ]aze b. plot [puot clot [kuot [l]otf[l]ow flow [f1]ow slow [sl]ow [b1]ot/ [gl]ow c. pew [pi]ew queue [ki]ueue you fi]u few [fi]ew [bj]eauty / [vj]iew d. twin [tw]in quick [kw]ick [w]in/ [w]ick swing [sw]ing [dw]ir1dle / (Fred) [gw]inn What do the data sets in each of (a) through (d) show? a) shows 00 in olfJUDt'tM afinmtg a my “1%,;fo l9) Chow“) in devoted when fallow a vlr rib)” 6V 1%in 0 Cf) dflVOtflui “Fifi a V): Shvovfi‘caihire Why should we not be suprised to find that this set of sounds (in all of (a) through (d)) all undergo the same phonological process in the same environment / context? ;—-————_—_t I mam Ling 10; Intro to Phonoiogy; Winter 2000 ® 3C2) ln—class discussion; Chapter 2 Consider the following data from English, in which voiceless stops may show up as either ‘plainl [p t, k] or as "aspirated“ [p", th, 13‘], informally. aspiration is a puff of air; it's denoted with an [h] superscript. scan [sk]an skill [sk]ill Stan [st]an still [st]ill span [splan pan [ph]a.n tan [flan can [Idlan spill [sp]ill pill [ph]ill till [£11111 kiil [161m Do [p], [ph], [t], [t"], [k] and [kh] represent six different phonemes in English? That is, is the difference between [p] and [ph], and between [t] and [th], and between [k] and [kh] contrastive in English? Or can we predict where a plain voiceless stop and an aspirated one will show up? What do the Hindi data below show you about the status of plain and aspirated voiceless stops in that language? Phonemic or allophonic? kan 'ear' khan ‘mime' tan ‘mode of singing" than ‘roll of cloth” pal ‘take care of“ phal ‘edge of knife” Data from Cree (a native American language of the Algonquian language family, spoken primarily in Canada). Here, a colon following a vowel (cg, [iI]) denotes a long vowel. pahki ‘partly‘ nilsosaip ‘twelve talnispil “when" paskwaIw 'prairie' asabalp 'thread’ walbamelw ‘he sees him" nalbeiw 'man' albihtaiw "half nibimohtain 'I walk' silsilbak 'ducks' Determine whether the sounds [pl and [1)] represent two different phonemes in Cree or if they are allophones of the same phoneme. If you find they are phonemes, state the contrast. If you find they are allophones. state the complementary distribution. Data from Russian (a member of the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family). The M problem involves accounting for the consonant alternations that occur in the obstruents at the end of the 5i w) stems in the examples below The (nominative) singular is unsuffixed (bare We (nominative) plural%«a&l suffix is shown here as full. at high back unround vowel.) coffin 2%: 1‘16 “'9 ( bur opond 26:31.:- tinu; @fisfilg‘ singular grop fierep prut cvet ras us plural grobLu fiereplu prudUJ cvetLu razLU usLu guard s ouieci threshhold 95:? L singular storoI duI porok porok plural storo3tu duJ'UJ porogw porokUJ a. Describe the differences between the stern alternants in each pair. b. Describe the environment for each stem altemant. c. Hypothesize a lexical (basic or underlying) form for each pair. d. Is there a pattern to the alternations in the stems? What is it? e. State formally the phonological rule required to account for the difference between lexical (underlying) and phonetic (surface) forms. f. Provide derivations for the singular and plural forms of the Russian words for threshhold and vice. set S VAHWDOV IMW'eéXx Cb‘ 9%“ TWA H” W‘ RMQ- d U . .. “Kl :bmewm/XAB @HOZ DOLQMM : @ A) Cl A )6)? )1 «3 [on if) XL’UELW ./ 9) UL a) )0 {Ii 33 (31/) U0 vfiW? f3 (3)01 X N “m b”) (N) m dwmr / MU" A ‘77 L3 03 \9 {Wit (NA 355M") / Muflafim ~t Ohm/fie gran/1031f A)M \9) 0/3 Val/€332 WAN \od. ‘PWW (VG \{Ld OAWbXM Ckwmy 1,_____h *2» fl . X Cm) JLA Amadfiuw \V‘UBMQ /3/ ((53 VLC\ AM \m‘é‘“) m“ fiwmmwg M4142 6419440 hide v Vowel MT ‘/ «X «Unvufiw WU rmwf /’ 4} *[0w voweU '/ wfl’hlgh Unwel: / 6} +baok+rbuncp vowcly / dJAVWDUhEi HMUL voweu / If +fim+ ‘ VDWd'WWW / Mow-d desmwumc 1‘ Phondh‘o ngsmr a); C b] We uhmund (fih’m vMi , = 6 mx‘dlow Uhmw (Mat M / 13W mwlhtgh mum fron’rvw “’ 303 hih vnmnq cam}? vowel / D '/ "“QWG‘ umvvwd bad: WM / a mum) WW fwd vw / (1 W6“ ummwi 5ro vowel / UK hxfih round "Fwd M / 6m 0mm? (Q [g Pr v0w\ Ls mum WW CNObbeWa‘uAa’mW. WWW (/1 0x wmomm \A W MW MW W waW obo’rmdw 2—5, We MISUNVML VOW Owafi‘hl‘ (frvm dtPfiw/m 1' 511(1) anal QSMM 5? “‘9 Wham Mme Slzbt and shape w: aH-cyr /. NUSWQ 16th and [Inf- (D, Wm 2 Amman: 1‘1) desyvibe 'va/J , 1) Maw pa) backwow and flap) Wwdm }/ (Wm-d w. (fivwhwwmh (i WM) \MIA \va ‘ \ow} bow/k) M“ (iv. \ Linguistics 10; Winter 2000 Name , ‘ Exercise # [6] ID # _ The Hungarian data below (idealized for our purposes) show that vowel qualitV in a given suffix varies Your task 15 to explain these vowel alternations Consider each data set and answer each question in turn. Ignore vowel length throughout the problem and assrirne this vowel svstem for Hungarian: i y u e o 0 S a 1. Data set A the dative suffix stem dan've a. What are the allomorphs of the dative suffix? ‘house’ ha:z hazzpak “Q E“ [l 2 K /— ‘city‘ vazroI va:roInak ‘squirrel’ mozkuj' mozkufnak b. Do the vowels in the allomorphs form a natural ‘water’ vizz vizznfili class? If so define the class :crowdv mmSg ' tomégnak (‘l’ [OW-l \r' DWC’lS [in YVGl qfd£€a3 0V? / ‘joy’ Dram eramnsk Sb ” ‘J ‘ ' ' 7' - ‘ (Lg-- :"ulml It g] 1-1" Le: 1) l _. K 2 c, What feature(s) do the vowels [a, o, 11] share? fl‘l‘Qanfl / - d. What feature(s) do the vowels [1. 8, a} share? ‘ 1.1“"th - 'th 5: T e. V‘What determines which allomorph of the dative su x will occur where? maid oat-m5 when the: Sim {Dmt'rl-grr Erbciclc1VDWm_ (\rifclfl stir-tart; «3mm was; (OHM-Inc; bmt 3 ",J'I-D‘V'Ufl‘i f. What feature(s) must be present in the Lex Rep of the vowel in the dative suffix? {4 lovflvowe‘u / 2. Data set B the first person plural (subject-verb agreement) suffix stem [st plural a. What are the allomorphs of the lst plural ‘wait for” var vazrunk suffix? ! Afllfi E’h DE ./ ‘know’ tud tudunk 'say’ hof hoj'unk bv Do the vowels in the allomorphs form a natural ‘sit‘ yl ylynk class? If so, define the class ‘love‘ SEISt sSrStynl-c ’l‘ lfll lfifl \} OWN: l(@\®\mld] OKFCWll H} t is p-\ l3“) c. What feature(s) do the vowels la, 0, 11} share? 4— {3/1 Cl< d. What feature(s) do the vowels [y, 8] share? ”kw: r' ’2— e. What determines which allomorph of the lst plural suffi will occur where? ,. UAW \ (1W - ' J WW v“- * l” "' WWW {4 barl M Wet-L0 /. CW‘ l4 3 at) h: (a, “‘3 ‘ Wat/h "lim- ‘§ l? W Umf'ri i 9 \f" bit! ll ) W l0- f. What feature(s) must be present in the Lex Rep of the vowel in the lst plural suffix? Gr \(‘1 if" t vex-#199“; 3 vi a .3 / Linguistics 10. Winter 2000 Name ' v “4:1 Exercise # [7] . / Weds ID # Disc. Section A. Circle the letter corresponding to the single most appropriate continuation for each of the incomplete statements in (1) through (5). 1. Voice pitch is directly determined by size of the speaker’s oral cavity. rate of vibration of the vocal cords. position of the tongue. all of the above. none of the above. 099%?!» 2. Vowel quality depends on a. position of the lips. b. position of the tongue. whether the soft palate (velum) is raised or not. all of the above. e. none ofthe above. 3. On a spectrogram, diphthongs are characterized by high frequency noise. steady-state formants. movements in the formants. low frequency noise. none of the above. b d e 011 a spectrogram, the presence of stops can be identified by g a gap or blank in the pattern. b steady-state formants. c formant transitions on contiguous (adjacent) vowels. both (a) and (b). fiboth (a) and (c). a spectrogram fn'catives like [3] ]and [H can be identified by.. 5? relatively high frequency noise. a very specific formant structure very low frequency noise (around 250 Hz). GD none of the above. Name ‘ ’IVI [Dy ._. —- H _. D. Consider the waveform graphs in (i) and (ii) below as you answer (9) and ( 10): (i) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 9 Which waveform represents a louder sound“? Q (i) is louder than (ii). (ii) is louder than (i). c. (i) and (ii) represent sounds of equal loudness, d loudness cannot be determined from a waveform graph. 10, Which waveform represents a sound with higher pitch” a, (i) is higher than (ii), ® (ii) is higher than (i). c. (i) and (ii) represent sounds with the same pitch. d. pitch cannot be determined from a waveform graph. (8/? r l . l ' ,r _ .. , f, . Linguistics 10; Winter 2000 Name _ .. v -‘L. _ Exercise # [8] _ I Wear ID # Disc. Section The problem from Canadian French given below forms the first part of Exercise [#8]; the second part is the Spanish problem on page 259 of your text. Please put your answer to the Canadian French problem on this page. Please put your answer to the Spanish problem on the reverse side of this page. (Don’t repeat the problem there; we need only your answer!) For the purposes of this problem, assume these generalizations about Canadian French: The maximum number of consonants in an onset is two. '2’ , If there are two onset consonants, the first must be an obstruent, the second a sonorant. The maximum number of consonants in a coda is two. 2, Each vowel forms the nucleus of a syllable. l 909‘?” 1. Characterize the maximum syllable in Canadian French. ccho 2. Can you think of a principled reason why generalization (b) is true of Canadian French (as well as of many other languages of the world)? duezib SOMDWH cam/chm x. ”We Jammh who 527‘ has milebu Water we (AMA—ii l‘i’ Mb 4 WM _fid. ' 3. Using ‘dot’ notation, syllabify the following forms in the spaces provided: a. bukan bi/l- Lawn-'— b. erite C. Y'i- +6 .. ‘ c. pudroeri fPUA‘ . VGE- Vi PM‘ d. as lg. D é @ Consider the following list of some singular nouns in English: lip, rock, fez. gum. myth, cove, bell, load, witch, bar, lathe, bat. song, laugh, lash, tag, hinge, hen, bus, rib, garage, tree, two, law, row, tray. When you form the plural of these words, you will notice that the plural marker is pronounced in three different ways, based on (the singular form of) the word. We can represent these different pronunciations as follows: [-92] as in horses; [—5] as in w; and [-2] as in dogs. a. Divide the nouns above into three sets, according to the plural ending they take, that is, into words that take [-32], words that take {—5}, and words that take [-2]. b. If you are a native speaker of English, or know English reasonably well, this problem should be easy for you. You should have no trouble forming the correct plural of nouns like those above when you hear the singular. It is part of your knowledge of English to produce these correct plurals without hesitation Suppose we ask the question; How do speakers of English do this? That is, in what form do speakers of English internalize their knowledge of plural formation? We may consider four possibilities: HYPOTHESIS A HYPOTHESIS B HYPOTHESIS C HYPOTHESIS D They memorize a plural form for every noun they come across. They learn the plural form on the basis of spelling. Thus, they learn that words ending with the letter p in the singular form the plural by adding [—5]. They know the sound (rather than the letter) in which the singular ends determines the pronunciation of the plural ending. They have memorized a list of English speech sounds that will be followed by the plural ending [-5], another list that will be followed by [-2]. and a third list that will be followed by [—92]. They know that if the singular ends in a sound of a certain type, the plural ending will be |-sl. if it ends in a sound of another type it will be [-2]. and if it ends in a sound of a third type it Wlll be [-92]. In other words, they have not memorized three lists of speech sounds for the purpose of plural formation, Rather, they learn which sound types (or classes) are relevant. Think about Hypotheses A-D and try to eliminate as many as you can. It should be easy to eliminate two of them. You may be able to eliminate a third if you think about it for awhile. (problem from Halle and Clements. 1983. Problem Book in Phonologv) ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern