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StudyGuide1_compat - 1 Psychology 2 Principles of...

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1 Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology Study Guide Exam1: Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 10 Topics that you should cover, know, and understand: The differences between the different fields of psychology that were discussed in the first lecture (i.e, how the fields are defined and what types of phenomenon are they interested in investigating). (See sections of Ch 1 for this topic). -Biological Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Personality Theory, Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Clinical Psychology (also know difference between a clinical Psychologist and Psychiatrist). The Scientific Methods in Psychology: (Module 2.1) -Why do we need a scientific method? Why is it important? -How is evidence evaluated? (Deductive vs. inductive reasoning) -What is a hypothesis? -What is a theory? What makes a good theory? What makes a bad theory? Be able to come up with examples of each. -Read over and understand the message behind Hans the Horse pg 35-36. -Describe the steps involved in the scientific method. Be able to provide an example of a hypothetical study using the scientific method from hypothesis to result. -What is replication? Why is it important? -What is meta-analysis? Conducting Scientific Research: (Module 2.2) -What is an operational definition? Why is it used? -What are the different types of population samples? What are the benefits and drawbacks of each? Why do we need them (or why are they used)? -What factors can influence the experimental results or data interpretation? -What is Experimenter Bias? What can lead to Experimenter Bias? -What are the different methods of controlling for errors in data interpretation? -What are the different non-experimental research methods used? And how does each method work (or what are the properties of each method)? What does one have to be careful of when using certain methods (for example, the language used in the survey method) and why? Be able to provide examples. - What is the correlation coefficient? What is a negative correlation, positive correlation, no correlation? -What is an illusory correlation? In general, does correlation equal causation? Why or why not? -What is an experiment? What can it tell us? What are the different components of an experiment (independent variable, dependent variable, experimental group, control group, random assignment)? Be able to design a simple experiment and identify each component in your design. Don’t forget that you need a hypothesis before you can conduct an experiment. -Ethical concerns involving human and animal research, how are they addressed? Measuring and Analyzing Results (Module 2.3): -You should be able to define the terms below and how each is measured. -Descriptive statistics? -Measures of central score: Mean, median, mode – What is each? When is each helpful?
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