Chapter 15 1-7 acids bases pH Ka Kb - Chapter 15 Ch 15 Page...

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Chapter 15 Ch 15 Page 668 1
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Bronsted Acid and Base Bronsted Acids- able to donate protons in the form of hydrogen ions – protons – H + . AH A - + H + Bronsted Base- able to accept protons in the form of hydrogen ions or H + . B - + H + BH HCl Cl - + H + C 2 H 3 O 2 H C 2 H 3 O 2 - + H + NH 3 + H + NH 4 + HO - + H + H 2 O 2
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Hydronium Ion Bronsted Acids- able to donate protons in the form of hydrogen ions – protons – H + . AH A - + H + HCl Cl - + H + HCl + H 2 O Cl - + H 3 O + 3
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Hydronium Ion In water : hydronium ion ≈ hydrogen ion H 3 O + H + [H + ] is often used as an abbreviation for [H 3 O + ]. However, H+ does not exist in water. 4
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Consider the ionization of HCl: HCl ( g ) + H 2 O ( l )  Cl ( aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq ) HCl donates a proton, thus it is an acid . H 2 O accepts a proton and is a base . Now, consider the reverse reaction: HCl ( g ) + H 2 O ( l )  Cl ( aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq ) Cl acts as a base because it accepts a proton from H 3 O + , an acid . Therefore, HCl is an acid, but after loosing a proton, Cl is a base. A Brønsted acid is a proton donor A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor 5
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs HCl ( g ) + H 2 O ( l )  Cl ( aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq ) HCl and Cl are a conjugate acid-base pair : HCl is a conjugate acid of Cl Cl is a conjugate base of HCl H 2 O and H 3 O + are also a conjugate acid-base pair. In a Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction, an acid and a base react to form their conjugate base and conjugate acid, respectively. acid 1 acid 2 base 1 base 2 6
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs In the reaction of HF and H 2 O, HF/F is one conjugate acid-base pair. H 2 O/H 3 O + is the other conjugate acid-base pair. Each pair is related by a loss and gain of H + . 7
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs In the reaction of NH 3 and H 2 O, one conjugate acid-base pair is NH 3 /NH 4 + the other conjugate acid-base is H 2 O/H 3 O + . 8
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs A. Write the conjugate base. 1. HBr 2. H 2 S 3. H 2 CO 3 B. Write the conjugate acid. 1. NO 2 - 2. NH 3 3. OH - 9
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs A. Remove H + to write the conjugate base. 1. HBr Br - 2. H 2 S HS - 3. H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - B. Add H + to write the conjugate acid. 1. NO 2 - HNO 2 2. NH 3 NH 4 + 3. OH - H 2 O 10 Note the change in charge upon addition or removal of protons.
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Identify conjugate acid-base pairs in the following reactions: NH 4 + + H 2 O  NH 3 + H 3 O + H 2 S + NH 3  HS + NH 4 + H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O  H 2 PO 4 + H 3 O + H 2 O + HS  HO - + H 2 S Water acts as an acid and a base! 11
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Chapter 15 12
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Water Acid-Base Reaction O H H + O H H O H H H O H - + [ ] + H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - acid conjugate base base conjugate acid H 2 O ( l ) H + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) 13
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14 Even very pure water exhibits a very small residual conductance. Water is a very weak electrolyte.
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