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Anthro 163 A S04 Exam

Anthro 163 A S04 Exam - INTRO TO SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHRO NAME...

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Unformatted text preview: INTRO TO SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHRO NAME . . . v . FINAL EXAM STUDENT # FALL 2004 FORM B True/False (6 points each): Select A for True and B for False 1) Postmodernism refers to the breakdown of traditional categories, standards, and boundaries in favor of a more fluid, context dependent set of identities. T 2) The economic domination of colonies by powerfiil industrialized nations over the late 19th and early 20'” centuries generally came to an end when the colonies were given T independence. 3) While settlers in the 19"1 century American West did on occasion take the “law” into their own hands and organize raids against Native Americans, US state and national F governments have never participated in acts of genocide. 4) Emily Martin argues that PMS in the US may be a weak form of resistance to disciplinary regimens exercised upon women because the very practice of PMS reinforces hegemonic discourses of gender. f F 5) Malay village girls are kept under the direct and strict supervision of older male relatives while within the village. F 6) Privatized and commodified land is inalienable. F 7) The United States is unique among nations of the world in that it alone has a history of relocating native peoples to reservations. T 8) Colonialism requires the direct governmental administration of subordinate societies by an imperial power. T 1 I‘ -' "‘5 ’1 r lg? rh L-’ “fr w? I MULTIPLE CHOICE (6 points each) 9) The macro level of social analysis: A) uses only very big words to describe social processes. B) is concerned principally with the analysis of complex large-scale societies like the United States. C) tends to ignore political and economic issues, since it focuses mostly on cultural traditions. @ Examines relations between societies. 3 0 10) Diaspora causes anthropologists to rethink their understandings of “family”: A) since images of western culture depicted in mass media are now conSumed by people all over the world. Q) because life for so many people in the world today requires maintaining close personal ties with relatives who live in distant lands. C) because extended families and large family structures are not viable given the economic pressures of today’s world. D) because local conceptions of kinship have been undermined by modernization. 11) The process of creating capitaiist workers out of people who previously produced their wn food for consumption and sale in a non-capitalist system: é usually uses local conceptions of time in the workplace to facilitate the changes workers experience in their new jobs. B) is a relatively easy and trouble-flee process since the buying and selling of labor power is the most natural way to organize labor in production. (9 is called proletarianization. ) all of the above. 12) The principle reason head taxes were levied upon the conquered peoples of colonies in Africa and many other places was: f1 it} to force conquered people into performing wage work or growing cash crops. - ® to generate needed revenues to pay for colonial administrations. C) to provide regular records on the size and character of colonial populations. D) to provide annual demonstrations of power that reinforced the authority of colonial administrations. —- 13) Today anthropologists realize that the ways we have represented peoples of other societies in anthropological theory: A) is easily and profoundly influenced by power relations operating between our respective societies and the societies of the people who have been the subjects of our research. B) has the potential to disguise or even justify exploitation of other peoples in the world. C) can shape the ways in which people in our own societies think about cultural difference and, in so doing, reproduce power relationships between societies. (9‘) all of the above. 14) Taylorist (routinized) production techniques have lead to: A) increased numbers of American citizens working in heavy industry. (3:) the shifi of manufacturing from wealthy industrialized nations to the 3rd World. C) the abandonment of assembly line production in modern industry. D) greater demands for a highly educated labor force. 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) Contemporary anthropological views of the "political": A) B) C) ® restrict use of this word to chiefdoms and states that have identifiable formal institutions of governance. define the political as anything that organizes relations between domestic units in society. refers only to the activities of men. stress power and its operation through assumptions, social relations, and strategic maneuver. For the most part, populations in many parts of the world — especially North and South America, Australia, and the Pacific Islands — experienced devastating decline over the past few centuries because of: A) B) ‘0 D) genocide conducted by European colonists. warfare with Europeans. disease. slavery. The people of the Pacific island of Nauru: A) B) D) suffered from blackbirding in the early 19‘h century. lost their land to European plantation owners who took advantage of imposed changes in land tenure and purchased land for growing sugarcane. sufi'ered irreparable damage to their island environment caused by colonial phosphate mining operations. suffered heavy population loss in an unsuccessful rebellion against German colonial authorities. Free Trade Zones (F TZs) like those created by the Malaysian government: A) B) C) @D are part of a plan to attract foreign investment and hopefirlly fuel economic growth. place few restrictions upon companies operating within FTZs such as laws regulating pollution or the treatment of workers. enable businesses operating within FTZs to avoid or at least reduce taxes like export duties. all of the above. Patriarchal authority organizing relations between men and women in the Malaysian village: A) @ C) D) is replaced by an egalitarian gender—neutral work ethic in microchip factories. is used by microchip factory management to create docile workers. is currently being eroded by the practice of spirit possession in microchip factories. all of the above. Wrs\:4luF—‘ny-\-)---—..--.i . 20) The first Western nation to practice imperial domination of other societies around the world in order to meet the needs of an industrial capitalist economy was: A) Spain. B) United States. C) Japan. (0) ' Great Britain. 21) From the cultural perspective of Euro—Americans of the United States in the 19‘'1 Century, the “frontier”: A) defined the border between zones of culture and nature. B) could become culturally part of the United States only by dismantling the order imposed by Native Americans and replacing it with Western moral order. C) constituted a realm that could be tamed only through demonstration of greater civility and tighter rules regulating behavior than operating in the already “tamed” zones of the eastern US. @ all of the above. 22) In the Capitalist World System, nations of the periphery: A) today include countries like Brazil, Mexico, and South Korea typically were recent colonies of a core power. C) are economically weak because their economies are highly diversified and are unable to concentrate upon a specific export commodity. D) all of the above. 23) The Mahele: Q) was the land distribution act that privatized Hawaiian land. B) refers to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy and Hawaii’s annexation by the United States. C) resulted in the mass conversion of native Hawaiians to Christianity and accompanying loss of political power by Hawaiian chiefs. D) none of the above. 24) The employment of young Malay village women in factories: ® often results in the dependence of both male and female family members upon their incomes. B) has undermined the strong bond between mothers and daughters. C) is discouraged by their parents because employment tends to delay marriage. D) excuses working daughters from doing household chores at home. 25) Social Scientists today agree that one clear economic motive accounting for the preference of multinational corporations to hire single young women for microchip assembly is: A) B) C) © the ability of women to do tedious and repetitive tasks with their nimble and dexterous fingers. The fact that wages can be kept low since young women will only work for a few years before quitting to marry and start families. the fact that women in the Third World have much experience doing long hard labor and are therefore more willing to work hard than are workers in industrialized nations like the US. all of the above. 26) The hegemonic discourse in any society. A) ® C) D) represents the only view of power relations held by members of the society. supports the power structure of the status quo. is secretive in its operation since it is usually expressed in ways that are hidden from full public view. all of the above. 27) Public perceptions of female factory workers in Malaysia: A) B) @ D) have in response brought many workers to reject the moralistic overtones of Malaysian Islam. show an increasing recognition of the poor working conditions to which the workers are subjected. characterize factory workers as being much too bebas. are indicative of the great enthusiasm Malaysian people hold for the path of industrial deveIOpment that their country has taken. 28) Incidences of spirit possession of Malaysian microchip factory workers usually occur: A) B) C) ® on the shop floor in front of their microscopes during the busiest and most StI‘CSSfiJI periods of production. while being reprimanded by male supervisors who are not relatives. while walking home from work at night. in factory rest rooms and prayer halls away from direct male supervision. 29) In response to pressures and tensions endured in microchip assembly plants, Malaysian women factory workers: Q) B) C) D) express dissatisfaction with their working conditions through hidden transcripts. have begun to form labor unions and threaten to strike if conditions are not improved. have taken their struggle to the voting booth where they have become solid supporters of the Malaysian Labor Party. all of the above. 30) A defining feature of capitalism that distinguishes it from other economic systems is: A the use of money as a medium of exchange. the rational pursuit of self interest. the exploitation of people who have no direct access to the means of production. D) that most individuals in society make a living by selling their capacity to do work to others. - 31) The different expectations that Malay village parents hold for their sons and daughters become manifested in: p the greater number of years of schooling for village boys than girls, the long periods of unemployment tolerated for adult sons. the relatively poorer performance of girls in secondary school despite greater success in primary school. @ all of the above. 32) The “fiactured day” that Aiwa Ong discusses as a source of stress to Malaysian factory workers refers to: A disruption of sleep cycles and daily regimens due to shitting work schedules. disruption of the continuity of work and active participation in social relations that characterized life in the village. C) disruption of daily expressions of spirituality since all prayer and religious expression is limited to home and the village. D) all of the above. 33) Cross cultural research on PMS and menstruation shows that: A) only women in industrialized societies experience any of the symptoms of PMS. B this period of time in a woman’s cycle is treated negatively in all cultural contexts. ® societies like the Yurok of northern California increases women’s work loads during menstruation. cultural construction of bodies, discipline and gender roles can profoundly affect how women experience hormonal changes that occur around menstruation. 34) According to Emily Martin, the Cult of Invalidism in late 19‘h century Europe and America. ' A) was practiced most frequently by working class women who used it as a form of resistance to oppression by men. @ made illness fashionable for women in ways that hurt their political position with respect to men. C) was routinely challenged by doctors of the period who argued that it had no basis in medical fact. D) invalidated male political authority and was an important step leading to the suffragette movement and final recognition of women’s right to vote. 35) 36) 37) 3s) "Bio-politics": B) C) ‘9) draws attention to the ways in which power relations organize cultural constructions of the body. reveals the interests behind multinational corporations' constructions of "Oriental female bodies". has implications for both local and macro levels of analysis. all of the above. Emily Martin argues that the way modern medical science tells the story of the production of egg and sperm in medical science textbooks: A) B) © D) stresses how wasteful sperm production in males is compared to the more eflicient production of eggs in females. gives a straightforward and accurate account of the actual facts of biological reproduction in human beings. makes women appear negative relative to men. all of the above. Malay word for a divorced or widowed villager woman: A) B) C) (9 Adat Hantu. T itaw None of the above. When Aihwa Ong speaks of capitalist discipline as a kind of power she is referring to: A) ® C) WE 39) power that is held by upper level corporate managers and not by workers. power that operates through relationships between people and through apparatuses like two-way mirrors to shape social practices. the capacity of the major industrial nations of the first world to maintain their political position in the capitalist world system. all of the above. Scientific research on PMS and menstruation in the United States: A) $ C) ® reveals that researchers were completely unaware of the impact of hormonal changes occurring around menstruation upon a woman's health until the past 25 years or so. has over the past century been more likely to claim that PMS and menstruation inhibit a woman’s performance in the work place during periods of national economic downturns such as during recessions. has consistently described menstruation as being extremely debilitating to women throughout the 20th century. suggests that PMS is widely used as an excuse to avoid responsibilities since there are no verifiable medical Symptoms associated with PMS. a-er‘rrw‘" " " " 40) Recent research on the biochemistry of adhesive molecules on both sperm and egg reveals that : ® 13) C) D) the egg is functionally the "lock" and sperm the "key", just like in any other part of the body where receptor and ligand are found. researchers have invented new terms rather than use conventional biochemical terminology that would challenge gender stereotypes. fertilization results from the sperm literally harpooning the eg due to the powerfill forward thrust of its tail. 20“ century scientists are willing to rethink a priori assumptions when confronted with data that directly contradicts their expectations. . ESSAYS (50 points) 1) Anthropological theory first emerged in the context of Western European colonialism. Discuss how each of TWO of specific anthropological theories of the 19111 and 20th centuries oeuld be used to legitimate or disguise Western colonialism. With both examples, make sure to describe the anthropological theory you use as an example and clearly spell but its broader link to colonialism. ESSAYS (50 points) cts and how they organize power relations between men and women under today’s changing economic circumstances. How does gender organize the How does microchip factory management take hierarchy of authority within the village? advantage of these constructs to obtain worker compliance with corporate goals? How do women workers use these same beliefs to express resistance to the forms of discipline to which they are subjected in the factory, and what effects do these forms of resistance have for operations within the factory as well as power relations between Malay men and women? 2) Discuss Malay villager gender constru ...
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