Econ 161B Spring 2005 FINAL EXAM

Econ 161B Spring 2005 FINAL EXAM - ECON 161b Final...

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Unformatted text preview: ECON 161b: Final Examination Spring 2005 Prof. Branch You have 2 hours for this examination. This is a closed note/book/ calculator exam. Be sure to explain all of your graphs. A complete answer includes a complete explanation. Be sure to label all of your axes and lines. The points for each question and subquestion are listed in parentheses. Remember, a concise answer is always preferred to a lengthy one. Good luck! 1. (30) Suppose that the world is considering going back to Bretton Woods. Answer the following. (a) (5) Where should the fixed exchange rate be set under Bretton Woods? Use an II—XX diagram to illustrate your answer. (b) (15) Suppose that the domestic price—level increases. Using an II-XX diagram explain why a speculative attack might occur under these circumstances. (c) (10) in part (b.), what can the IMF do to help a country in this situation? (Assuming that the country is in Bretton Woods.) 2. (15) Is a fixed exchange rate system or floating exchange rate system better for sta- bilizing an economy from demand shocks? Illustrate in a DD/AA graph. 3. (15) Suppose a country is in “zone 3”. Using a DD/AA graph illustrate how a deval— uation can help restore internal balance. 4. (30) The following questions involve the 1997 East Asian Financial Crisis. (a) (10) What are the two theories of the causes of the East Asian Financial Crisis? (b) (10) According to each theory, which zone of the II—XX diagram did Thailand reside at the onset of the crisis? (c) (10) Based on your readings, which theory do you find is a more compelling explanation of the crisis? 5. (10) When countries find themselves in financial crises they often turn to the 1.M.F. for external financing. Critics of the I.M.F. argue that such “bailouts” create a moral hazard problem. Describe this moral hazard problem. Suggest a way of reforming the international financial system to eliminate the moral hazard problem. Final Exam Review Astronomy, 20A UCI, Winter 2006 Final Exam consists of chapters 1 — 16 This Reviews Chpts 11 — 16. For Reviews of Chpts 1 — 10, please see the past reviews for Midterm I and II which are still online Answers will be provided in a day or two Exam Date: Tuesday March 21, 8 am. in class About 100 questions will be given, from which roughly 60 — 70% of them will be from Chpts 11 - 16 Page 1 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. All organic compounds are involved with life. (T/F?) Most asteroids are found in orbit around the Sun between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. (T/F?) Asteroids cannot have moons. (TfF?) All of the material of a comet comes from its nucleus. (T/F?) You can get the sernimajor axis for cometary orbits from taking half their farthest distances from the Sun. (TIP?) Asteroids, meteorites, and comets A. all are made of ice. B. all have orbits far beyond that of Pluto. all carry with them a record of the forming Solar System. D. All of the above. The three types of meteorites are stony chondrites, stony iron, and iron. B. chondrites, achondrites, and carbonaceous. C. meteors, meteoroids, and meteorites. D. iron, nickel, and stony. The oldest meteorites are A. SNC. . iron. carbonaceous chondrites. D. comets. The mass of all of the known asteroids combined would be as much as A. half the mass of Earth. ® one-third the mass of the Moon. C. the mass of Mars. D. three times the mass of Earth. The darkest asteroids are A. M-type. B. S-type. @ C-type- D. Q-type. The actual part of the comet the produces its tail is G.) about 10 km in size. B. 1,000 km in size. C. 10 m in size. D. 1 cm in size. 12. 13. 14. i9. 20. Page 2 An Oort Cloud object is A. a large asteroid in the asteroid belt. B. one of the Apollo asteroids. C. one of the comets that orbit the Solar System . nearest the Sun. one of the comets that orbit far fi'om the Sun. The head and tails of a comet originate from A. its nucleus. B. the solar wind. . jets of gas. . All of the above. The tail of a comet can stretch as large as A. 10 km B. 1,000 km C. 100,000 km To measure the luminosity of a star, you need to know its brightness and distance. (TIP?) If we know the radius and temperature of a star, we can calculate its luminosity. (TfF'?) B stars are cooler than M stars. (T/F?) What is the difference between brightness and luminosity? A. These are different names for the same property. B. Luminosity is how we see a star, brightness is how much light it emits. CC) Brightness is how we see a star, luminosity is how much light it emits. D. Luminosity measures size, brightness measures temperature. Star A is 10,000 times as luminous as star B. We see them to be the same brightness, so star A must be A. the same temperature as star B. ® 100 times farther away than is star B. C. 10,000 times closer than is star B. D. the same size as star B. The color of a star tells us A. its luminosity. B. its size. C. its brightness. its temperature. 21. In the spectral sequence OBAFGKM, what is the relationship of a B star to a K star? A. The B star is cooler than the K star. ® The B star is hotter than the K star. C. The B star is closer than the K star. D. The B star is farther away than the K star. 22. The Sun is a 62 main sequence star. B. a G2 giant star. C. an A2 main sequence star. D. an A2 giant star. 23. The faster-m0ving star in a binary is ® the less massive star. B. the more massive star. C. the hotter star. D. the more distant of the two stars. 24. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is A. a graph of mass versus brightness for stars. B. a graph of size versus mass for stars. @ a graph of luminosity versus spectral type for stars. D. a graph of mass versus spectral type for stars. 25. 90% of nearby stars A. are mostly made of hydrogen. ® lie on the main sequence in the H-R diagram. C. are like the Sun. D. All of the above. 26. The position of a star on the main sequence is primarily determined by its B size C. distance. D. brightness. 27. The Sun is unique among stars. (T/F‘?) 28. If the Sun stopped nuclear fusion in its core, it would take 10 years for its luminosity to change. (T/F?) 29. The part of the surface of the Sun we see with our eyes is called its photosphere. (TIF?) 30. How do we know the Sun is 4.6 billion years old? A. by measuring its hydrogen abundance today B. by measuring its output luminosity today © by measuring the ages of rocks on the Moon and the ages of meteorites D. All of the above. 31. The energy that fuels the Sun is generated where? . only on its surface a) only in its core C. both in its core and its surface D. in its core, surface, and wind 32. Why is nuclear fusion of hydrogen the sole source of energy in the Sun? ‘ . because the Sun is so hot ‘3 because the Sun is mostly made of hydrogen C. because the Sun is so massive D. because of gravity 33. Energy is transmitted within the Sun from its core to its Surface primarily by A. radiation only. radiation and convection. C. radiation, convection, and conduction. D. convection only. 34. Our knowledge of the interior structure of the Sun is helped by A. measurement of its luminosity. helioseismology. C. measurement of its mass. D. neutrino oscillations. 35. We cannot call the spectrum of the Sun a perfect blackbody spectrum because .we see so many absorption lines in its spectrum. B. the Sun is too hot. C. the Sun is too large. D. it emits far too many neutrinos. 36. Sunspots are dark because they are of lower temperature than the rest of the photosphere. they are depressions in the solar photosphere. they are high points in the photosphere. they are of higher temperature than the rest of the photosphere. F305” 37. Evidence of magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun A. includes only sunspots. B. includes both sunspots and prominences. C. includes sunspots, prominences, and flares. -includes sunspots, prominences, flares, and coronal mass ejections. Page 3 +3~l~l 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. Evidence that the Sun is losing mass with time is given by A. sunspots. the photosphere. solar wind. D. the chromospbere. Ninety percent of the mass of the interstellar medium is hydrogen. (Ti/F?) Clouds of interstellar material are colder than the gas between these clouds. (T IF?) A star differs from its protostar progenitor in that the star is larger. (T/F?) Almost [00% of the atoms in the interstellar medium are A. oxygen and hydrogen. B. hydrogen and nitrogen. hydrogen and helium. . oxygen and nitrogen. Interstellar dust affects our observation of stars in what ways? A. by obscuring them B. by obscuring them and making them look bluer by obscuring them and making them look redder D. by making them look brighter and bluer H 11 regions are regions in the interstellar medium where A. helium is neutral. B. hydrogen is neutral. . helium is ionized. a hydrogen is ionized. Which of these environments contains the densest gas in the interstellar medium? molecular clouds B. hydrogen clouds C. inter-cloud gas D. X-ray emitting hot gas "Weather" in the interstellar medium is produced A. only by supernovae. .by supernovae and strong winds from luminOus stars. C. by supernovae, strong winds from luminous stars, and fast-moving stars. D. by supernovae, strong winds from luminous stars, fast-moving stars, and exploding planets. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 55. Page 4 When stars form, then tend to A. form singly. . form in groups of two or three. form many at a time. D. form randomly and always in pairs. The "thermostat" that keeps a protostar at about the same temperature as it collapses is A. ionized helium. . ionized hydrogen. hydrogen atoms with one extra election. D. neutral hydrogen. The difference between a protostar and a main sequence star is A. the protostar's energy comes from its collapse; the energy of the main sequence star comes from nuclear fission. B. the protostat’s energy comes from nuclear fission; the energy of the main sequence star comes from nuclear fusion. the protostar's energy comes from its collapse; the energy of the main sequence star comes from nuclear fusion. D. None; there is no difference. Bipolar outflow from a star happens because i . the main sequence star has a strong wind. the protostar is surrounded by an accretion disk and has a strong wind. C. of a very fast rotating accretion disk. D. of a very fast rotating main sequence star. The birth of our Sun was likely A. calm and ordered. violent and full of turmoil. C. lonely and far removed from all other forming stars. D. quiescent. A main sequence star burns hydrogen in a shell around its core. (TIF?) 1n reaction to cessation of nuclear burning in its core, a low mass star becomes redder and more luminous. (T [F ?) Binary stars can become novae and supernovae because slight differences in mass can mean large differences in main sequence lifetimes. (TIP '1') The most abundant fuel for stars is A. Oxygen. nitrogen. ydrogen. D. helium. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. The luminosity of a star depends on A. how far away it is. B whether it is a giant star or not. @ how efficient its fuel is and how fast it burns. D. whether it is a main sequence star or not. The names we give the different phases of stellar evolution, Such as main sequence and giant branch, come from A. the sizes that stars have in each evolutionary phase. B. the temperature and luminosity properties of the stars as graphed in the H-R diagram. C. the masses of the stars. D. the ages of the stars. When a main sequence star like the Sun uses up all of its core fuel, the collapse of its core is halted by the electrons becoming too densely packed together. B. the protons becoming too densely packed together. C. the neutrons becoming too densely packed together. D. the onset of helium bunting in the core. The "Helium F lash" occurs because ® the degenerate helium core of the red giant star becomes too hot. B. the degenerate helium core of the red giant star becomes too massive. C. the degenerate helium core of the red giant star becomes too large. D. the degenerate hydrogen core of the red giant star becomes too massive. An asymptotic giant branch star gets its luminosity from A. only the hydrogen shell burning. both the hydrogen shell and the helium shell burning. C. core hydrogen and shell helium burning. D. core helium and shell hydrogen burning. The gas in a planetary nebula comes from A. just hydrogen in the surrounding interstellar medium. B. just hydrogen from the post-asymptotic giant branch star. C. hydrogen and elements processed in the core of the post-asymptotic giant branch star. D. just helium from the post—asymptotic giant branch star. 62. 63. 64. 68. 69. Page 5 Which was more massive when it was on the main sequence, the main sequence A star Sirius or its binary companion white dwarf? A. Sirius the white dwarf C. Both were the same mass when main sequence stars. D. not enough information to answer this question Why does the more massive star in a binary almost always become a white dwarf before the second star becomes a red giant? A. Low-mass main sequence stars take too long to evolve. .The time it takes for a low-mass star to evolve from subgiant star to white dwarf is very short compared to its main sequence lifetime. C. The helium flash is so fast. D. horizontal branch stars burn helium in their cores. Novae happen because of A. carbon-burning ignition of a white dwarf. @ hydrogen burning on the surface of a white dwarf. C. planetary nebulae getting too hot. D. All of the above. High-mass stars differ from low-mass stars in that they burn helium to carbon when on the main sequence. (T/F?) A pulsar is a rapidly spinning neutron star with a strong magnetic field. ("f/F?) The gravitational redshift has the same physical cause as the Doppler redshift. (TfF?) A 10 solar mass main sequence star produces most of its energy by burning A. hydrogen to helium via the proton--proton chain. ® hydrogen to helium via the CNO cycle. C. helium to oxygen. D. carbon to iron. A Cepheid star varies in luminosity because A. the whole star pulsates, from its core to its surface. @ only the outer envelope of the star pulsates. C. the star rotates too quickly. D. the star is so massive. 70. Stars continually lose mass as they evolve primarily because they have winds due to nuclear fusion. 6 hey have winds due to the pressure of electromagnetic radiation C. they have explosions on their surfaces. D. they rotate so quickly. 71. When iron is formed in the core of a massive star, what happens next? A. It becomes a Cepheid star. B. It goes through a helium flash. It becomes a white dwarf. It becomes a Type II super-now. 72 . A Type II supernova can leave behind . a pulsar a white dwarf. C. a main sequence star. D. a horizontal branch star. 73. H-R diagrams of star clusters can tell us their ages. B. where they were born. C. how they were born. D. how they contribute chemical elements to the interstellar medium. 74. In Einstein's theory of general relativity, mass A. changes its geometry as it moves ® changes the geometry of space. C. cannot move more slowly than zero velocity. D. immediately becomes energy. 75. The geometry of space determines A. how many degrees there are in a triangle. B. the ratio of the diameter of a circle to its circumference. how light can travel. All of the above. 76. One consequence of curved space is that A. masses can be very large. .background objects can have their brightness amplified when passing by large masses. C. background objects can be brought closer to you when passing by large masses. D. all stellar remnants must be black holes. 77. The event horizon of a black hole is defined by the radius within which light cannot escape. the radius where its singularity is formed. C. the radius at which you would be torn to shreds if you approached the black hole. D. the radius where its gravity is equal to that of our Sun. Page 6...
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