Anthro 163 A F04 Midterm 2

Anthro 163 A F04 Midterm 2 - r «aeummyt-m ‘ INTRO TO...

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Unformatted text preview: r «aeummyt-m ‘ INTRO TO SOHO-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY NAME MDTERM 11 FALL 2004 STUDENT # FORM A 1) 3) 5) is a direct prohibition on C) always prohibits sex with D) all of the above. marriage with close relatives the same biological kin types in all societies. A chief can mobilize a larger labor force than at highest because: 'gman is limited to bers of a large kin group while a b1 6) a chief can call upon mem people with whom he haswestablished close personal ties. B) a chief holds an achieved status that is higher in rank than that of the bigman. C) chiefs usually have marry wives and therefore have many more sons. D) chiefs typically hoard their wealth while bigmen tend to give it away in competitive gift giving events. around the world; The underlying logic for the enduring diffuse solidarity of kinship ties in the many different annual systems other words, genetic ties between individuals. ® isulfimntely based on blood ties, or in B) may vary considerably between different sodeties. C) makes it possible to easily translate kin terms of one language into the language of another society with an otherwise very different cultunfl system D) all of the above. [facensrisofthemanyconunumnesinasocietyrevealedthatallthemarnedmenliwngmthe same community were members of the same pan-flineage, while the married women of the community represented many different pahilineages, what form of post—marital residence rules would you expect to be in Operation? virilocal residence B) uxorilocai residence. C) neolocal residence. D) avunculocel residence. Tribes differ from bands in that the different sections of a tribe are pulled together into a single sociopolitical order by: @ allegiance to centralized authority figures like chiefs. systems of large and complex kinship units like clans. C) shared culture. D) a common language. 6) Bride-wealth: A) is kept by the new wife who otherwise receives no inheritance from her kin group. B) represents the purchase of a wife. 0 is a symbolic marker of new relations and possibly compensation to the wife’s kin group for loss of her labor and progeny. D) all of the above. 7) For agricultutists in the Himalayas of south-central Asia, polyandry: ‘ ‘ avoids fragmentation of family land over the generations. enables women to accunmlate land by combining the landholdings of her different husbands. C) ensures that a man will have many wives and children to work in his fields. D) reqtfiresmmtommylatemlfl‘ewhilewomenmarrywhentheyareveryyoung. 8) AmongtheMasaiofKenyaagesets: are pan-tribal sodalities that cross-cut the many difl'erent kin groups that make up fl aredifl'erentlif stages—from youth to elderwthatindividuals pass throughas they get Q? older. ‘9 0‘4 C) regulate maniage by forcing individuals to marry spouses who are of the same age set ' t? 4% as themselvm. 0}” D) all of the above. 9) A bigrnan: A) is a political leader often found in highly stratified societies. B) tries not to make himself appear as a public leader so as to preserve the spirit of egalitarianism. _ © cannot pass his position of political influence on to his sons. D) has the authority to punish those who do not follow his orders. 10) Which of the following is an example of endogamy? A Atabooagainstmarryingmembersofthesamelineage. The law in Nazi Germany forbidding Aryans from marrying anyone but other Aryans. C) Atabooagainstmanyingwitlfin the sameviliage. D) All of the above. 11) The marital arrangement whereby an has two or more wives at a time is known as: A) serial monogarny. B) polygamy- C) polyandlv- @ poiysyny- 12) 13) . ® 14) Among the Now of southern Sudani A) blood ties form the basis of kinship links between {others and their children. B Nuer formerly believed that sexualintercourse had nothing to do with conception. women can become fathers. - D) all ofthe above. ' " ' “ Societies statelevel political organizatiOn: ‘_ A) are usually egalitarian. .' _B) ‘ have leaders Whose authority OVOI' others is based upon the nature of their kinship - ties. ' ' ' " ‘@ now incorporate all societies of the world. D) are ruled by hea'dmen. m; GNOME) ' A) are fellow membersotfone's elm .7 g ‘ arerelafivesbymaifiage 15) _' L . - are seni (siege-s lineage fi'om whom ego inherits his/her wealth. D) A _‘ arethe'childrenofooe'ssihlings. - ‘ A) . mchlarger,havingmanymorepeoplethanalineage. 'B)" themembersofaline‘age lmo'weimctly howeach member is relatedto every other mdnbafiwhilefiesbetweenfellowdanmembasaremuchmorevague. ‘ clans ofien'have totemic associations, and lineages don’t. ‘ 16):)“, e > [I '17; J - .1 7 Unlike desceqtdgrotlps as lineages, kindreds don't have corporate fimctions (control A garet'oolarge.‘ ' L ,.arcego-oenterednetworks. - include'hothmaleandfemnlerelafives. " D) f” allofthesbove. " The liner lineage system: h p i ' provides a framework for political organization. 3) ~ * breaks Nuer society down-into kinship groups each ruled by a chief ‘ . A. 7‘. of CE prevents the Nuerfiom ever operating together as a single unit. "ralloftheabove. 7: ldriship,cross00usins: nightbesooiallyacceptablemaniagepMeis. 18)“) ‘ t‘ "553' . dwaysdengtoego’sdesceritgroup. r' always arethe oppositesexofego. D) alloftheabove. mm we mm m MA FOR QUESTIONS 19 - 24, REFER TO THE IGNSEIP DIAGRAM 19) Following panilineal descent rules, who of the following is in Ego’s panilineage in the first descending generation? A 2 & 3 1&5 gr 0 57 & 58 D) 37 & 36 20) Following matnlineal descent mles, who IS in ego’s matrilmeage 1n the second ascending eneraztion? A) 25 & 27 B) 41 & 43 C 44 & 46 ,. 53 & 55 at? 7‘ 21) If ego lived in a society that practices ammculocal residence, then whom would ego and his wife go to live with after they became manied‘? A 53 43 C) 42 D) 37 22) Who of the following is a matrilateral cross cousin of ego? 27 B 28 C) 20 D) 23 . , F 23) Who 15 ego s FFZS? 41%,} P35 A) 1 9 5; , B 22 5’93 J I C) 34 “” D 55 24) ' at least theoretically possfole for person #21 to be a member of ego’s clan if. both are in a society practicing matrilineal descent. both are in a society practicing patilineal descent. C) persons #21 and #29 are the same individual. D) all of the above. 31) Trobriand women who shave their heads and blacken their faces as a sign of mourning ghout Trobriand funerary ritual: w are members of the deceased’s lineage. ® © B will receive women’s wealth at sagali. E support their brothers by giving women’s wealth to their brothers’ wives who in ‘ tum will give this wealth at the funeral sagali. D) receive kula valuabes. 32) Trobriand chiefs need many wives: A so that they will have many sons who will be their followers. '13) so that there will be many people growing yam gardens for them. C) in order to create as wide a network of political alliances as possible. D) to provide a symbolic display of their sexuality and their ability to influence the thoughts of others. 33) According to anthropologists and many social theorists, the development and mastery of elaborate systems of knowledge that define good taste in art, food, fashion, etc: A) is simply a product of the human drive for aesthetic perfection. B) is a process equally open to everyone of all income levels, and thereby promotes a shifi toward a more egalitarian society. C) has little to do with other dimensions of social status like wealth and powerful social networks. @ is a political process maintaining social distance between social groups and classes. 34) With the emergence of a cash economy in the Trobriand Islands: A) traditional forms of Trobriand wealth have become unimportant. B chiefs no longer have authority over the people of their clans. ?@ women get access to men’s cash earnings by trading banana leaf bundles in valova exchange. D) women's political positions have dramatically declined relative to the position of men. 35) Classical western assumptions about gender and public and domestic domains: A assign men and women to different but complementary and equal roles in society. are reversed in the Trobriands, where women operate primarily in the public domain and men in the domestic. % @ hold that the gendered domaining of social spaces and activities is based on natural differences between men and women, and hence is universal. @f all ofthe above. 7 36) Gender: % is an analytical term that is interchangeable with “sex”, since they mean the same thing. as is like other cultural constructions in that it can make products of social relations @ 7 a???” m- . . . carries the same meaning in drfi‘erent cultural contexts around the worid. D) all of the above. 37) IntheTrobriandIslands,finhers: Q condihdemthesodaldevdopmnflofthdrchfldrenbyhdpingmakethmbewfififl. B) bfingawaiwaiatoitsmoflrerfihea‘ebycaushngconoemmn C) donotahowmuchafleefionforthehchfldrmdncetheydonotbelongtoafarher’s lineage. D) arrangemarriagesfortheirdanghters. 38) Where on the map provided bdow is the country of Papua New Guinea? Mark the correctly designated spot onyom'scantronUh B, C, orD). 39) Which ofthe following areexamples ofsocial strata? A) Social claSSes in the United States. B) Castes in India. C Races in the former apartheid government of South Afi'ica. All of the above. 40) Trobriand women’s wealth includes such things as: grass skirts. tobacco C) kula shell necldaces. D) all of the above. TRUEIFALSE (6 points: AnswerA for True, and B for False) 41) Incmsuializnfion increases mobility which in turn has played a large part in the decreased T frequency of extended families in the United Staies. 42) Conrad Phillip Kottak (the author of your textbook) argues that samesex marriages are F not culturally viable institutions. T 43) Ti 47) F 43) Ethnography of wealth and power in the Trobriand Islands suggests that we can no longer think of political relations being limited to the activities of men in the “public domain . Primogeniture ofi‘ers one solution to problems in the relationship of people to scarce rescurces by having the eldest son inherit the family wealth. Among the Nuer of southern Sudan, young men with wage jobs can gain some autonomy from their lineage elders by buying cattle with their own wages. Anthropologists stress the importance of a holistic approach by looking for connections between the social pracfices under investigation and the many other practices, beliefs, and institutions of the wider socio-cultural context. In the Trobriands, brother—sister avoidance refers to the disgust brothers hold for their sisters who are believed to be polluted and of far lower status than themselves. In Kula exchange throughout the Massim, participants each try to accumulate more Kula valuables than other participants by trading a single necklace for many arm shells. Marriage exchanges, such as those widely done in societies in the Pacific, are often competitive in character, the supporters of thebride and those of the groom both trying to give more wealth than they receive. Moka in the New Guinea highlands is arranged by chiefs who can amass large amounts of wealth for Moka exchange by giving orders to their respective people. Authority is based on special control of resources that enables someone to threaten others and thereby force them to do things against their will. The form of sociopolitical organization most common for foragers has throughout history been that of the tribe. States are complex systems of sociopolitical organization that aim to control and administer everything from conflict resolution, to fiscal systems, to population movements. According to theorists like Pierre Bourdieu, someone who pays to enroll in a wine tasting course is using economic capital to build cultural capital. For Trobriand Islanders, a war'war'a is a spirit ancestor. ...
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Anthro 163 A F04 Midterm 2 - r «aeummyt-m ‘ INTRO TO...

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