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Organizational Behaviour 386Unit Review QuestionsUnit 1:1.Why do organizations and individuals enter into an employment relationship?2.What does the word resource in the term human resource management suggest about the nature of the employment relationship?3.What explains the persistent wage gap between men and women?1.Employers hire workers to accomplish certain tasks within the organization. Employment is said to be an economic relationship – there is an exchange of value between the worker and the employer. Specifically, workers will agree to provide their skills and time in exchange for wages and/or benefits from the employer. Basically organizations hire workers to help them provide labour and goods and workers do the work to earn money. This is agreement is knows as the “wage-rate bargain”. 2.Human resource management is a function of an organization designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer’s strategic objectives. The primary focus is concerned withthe management of people within the organization, focusing on policies and systems. The word resource suggests that people are an important resource and that the employment relationship between employer and employee is extremely important to maintain in the correct way. HRM is a strategic approach to the management an organization’s most valuable resources “the employees”. It focuses on the recruitment, management and providing direction to potential and current employees of an organization. As employees are the most valuable resource for an organization its important that the HRM department focuses on the workforce planning, recruitment, orientations, skills management, training, salaries & wages, employee benefits and performance appraisal to ensure that all employees (potential and current) are happy and exceling at what they do to keep the organization going. After all organizations wouldn’t exist without the most important resource in the world – people.3.The persistent wage gap between men and women could be explained by the gender differences in productivity and earnings: differences in characteristics of female & male workers, differences in types of activities and jobs that women & men do, differences in the returns to both worker and job characteristics. Basically in many countries women are less educated than men and due to child baring years are more likely to suffer career and education interruptions than men. Due to child baring years’ women usually are not as available for work and overtime and men as it is generally understood than the woman stays home with the kids, thus she would take longer to excel and receive wages in the work place than a man, and would willingly take a lower paying job if it worked around school schedules. It is a known fact that women’s jobs pay less then men’s, some of the above could explain this wage gap but sadly a significant fraction of the gender wage gap remains to be unexplained. Saying this, two explanations can be volunteered: