Genetics Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1-8

Genetics Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1-8 - Genetics Notes The...

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[See Fig. 4.5] See Fig 4.17 and Table 4.2 Genetics Notes The Method of Reasoning (Logic) of Genetics **8 elements of genetic reasoning --Purpose: to figure out how genetics operates through systematic observation and experimentation --Questions: What can be figured out? --Information: Facts that can be systematically gathered about genetics --Interpretation & Inference: Judgments based on observations and experimentation that lead to systematic knowledge --Concepts: Working of genetics as predictable and understandable --Assumptions: There are laws at work in genetics that can be figured out through systematic observations and experimentations --Implications & consequences: Study=knowledge --Point of View: Genetics can be understood **Basic or Applied Research --Basic: Experiments done to gain understanding of phenomenon. May not lead to applications. Fuels more basic research. --Applied: Experiments done to overcome problems. Knowledge gained from basic research used. **Agri—Plant/Animal improvement **Medicine—Genetic disease, diagnostic tests, pharmaceuticals --Not always a sharp dividing line between the two. Chapter One: Introduction to Genetics I. Genetics? --Heredity—cause of similarities between individuals **storage of genetic info **transfer of genetic info **expression of genetic info --Variation—cause/occurrence of differences between individuals
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--Genetics attempts to explain mechanism/basis for similarities/differences between related individuals II. Divisions of Genetics --Transmission **parents offspring --Population **Genetic composition of populations and how collective genes change through time. --Molecular **Study of chemical nature of genetic info and how it is encoded, replicated, and expressed at molecular level. III. Albinism in the Hopis --autosomal recessive trait --reduced pigment --visual impairment --increased rate of skin cancer Incidence of Albinism Population Incidence Hopi Indians 1 in 200 N.A. Caucasians 1 in 40,000 --Why so common in Hopis? **Place of Albinism in Culture **Albinism=Special Status **Positions of Leadership --Men with Albinism **Normally farm—increased sun **Albino men exempt **mate and spread genes more IV. Importance of Genetics --Appearance, health, intelligence, personality
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--Agriculture --Pharmaceutical industry --Medicine --Biotechnology V. Importance of Genetics to Biology --Foundation of many fields --Techniques used in biological research History of Genetics VI. Genetics is both old and new --Wilhelm Johannsen [1857-1927] **Suggested Mendel’s “factors” be called “genes” --William Bateson [1861-1926] **study of mechanism be called “genetics” **First to hold office in area of genetics in 1908 VII. Mechanisms of Heredity --Development of ideas replete with misconceptions, many naïve --Historically theories (ideas) may be roughly divided into three categories **vapors and fluids **preformation **particulate VIII. Developments in Genetics --Plant/Animal Domestication **First plants/animals domesticated 10-12,000 years ago
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2008 for the course BIO 2306 taught by Professor Durhkopf during the Fall '08 term at Baylor.

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Genetics Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1-8 - Genetics Notes The...

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