Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - CONCEPTION, PREGNANCY AND BIRTH (continued) A....

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C ONCEPTION , P REGNANCY AND B IRTH (continued) A. Problems in Pregnancy a) Maternal risks i. Maternal death: 1% in developed world b) Birth defects: results from teratogen, maternal illness, genetics, and STDs c) Rh incompatibility: problem when mother is Rh- and the baby is Rh+ i. No blood exchange until birth ii. Once deliver, the mother starts creating the Ab d) Pregnancy-induced hypertension/toxemia: mother blood pressure rises and ultimately lead to death e) Ectopic pregnancy: implantation anywhere other than the uterus i. Cause a lot of pain f) Miscarriage: spontaneous abortion in the first 20 weeks of fertilization, which is different from still birth (baby dying after 20 weeks) i. Most miscarriage occurs very early g) Preterm birth i. Based on the body weight of fetus, not the length of pregnancy ii. Less than 5 lbs 9 oz B. Prenatal Testing a) Blood, vaginal, urine tests b) Ultrasound c) Amniocentesis: long needle in belly button and take a small sample from amniotic fluid i. Can look at the cells from the fetus and look at the chromosome ii. Can determine sex of fetus
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Lecture 4 - CONCEPTION, PREGNANCY AND BIRTH (continued) A....

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