Chapter 11 Notes - Pathophysiology Chapter 11 Notes Leukocytes Blood cells(RBCs WBCs originate in the bone marrow Produce different blood cells at

Chapter 11 Notes - Pathophysiology Chapter 11 Notes...

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Pathophysiology Chapter 11 Notes Leukocytes: Blood cells (RBCs, WBCs) originate in the bone marrow Produce different blood cells at different rates depending on demand This mean we need: o Separate cell lines o Separate Colony Stimulating Factors for each line The various stem cells with different abilities to produce the cell lines We need to be able to: o Identify these cells, the cell lines, and understand the role of stimulating factors o Understand the effects of deficiencies o Consequences of leukemia and lymphomas White Blood Cells: Further categorization: Granulocytes : o Neutrophils: Primary pathogen-fighting cells First responders o Eosinophils: Help control allergic responses Fight parasites o Basophils: Blood cells Release Heparin, Histamine, and other inflammatory mediators o Mast cells Tissue cells: Release heparin, histamine, and other inflammatory mediators Involved in allergic reactions Agranulocytes : o Lymphocytes: B cells: Produce antibodies Inactive Plasma cells T cells: T-helper cells (CD4 + ): o Activate the immune response Cytotoxic T cells (CD8 + ) o Cell-mediated immunity Natural Killer cells: Kill antigenic cells (like tumors) o Monocytes Macrophages
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Antigen-presenting cells Produce inflammatory mediators Leukocyte Cell Lines: Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into two separate cell lines: o Myeloid : “pertaining to the bone” Produced and mature in the bone marrow o Lymphoid : B-cells T-cells Natural Killer cells Produced in the bone marrow, but mature in the thymus These cell lines can further differentiate into different blood cells Note: monocytes are agranulocytes but produced from the myeloid cell line; however, the rest of the myeloid line are all granulocytes. Lymphocytes are agranulocytes . Lymphoid cells: T-cells (“T” for Thymus) o Produced in the bone marrow, but mature in the Thymus to become : CD4 + (helper T-cells) CD8 + (cytotoxic T-cells) B-cells ( “B” roughly refers to Bone Marrow) o Produced and mature in the bone marrow o Can become plasma cells that produce antibodies against specific pathogens Natural Killer cells : o Part of the innate immune system o Kills tumors and other dysfunctional cells Lymphoid Tissue: Fluid moves from the blood to tissues and back to the blood circulation via lymph vessels Primary Lymph tissue: o Thymus and Bone Marrow Maturation of T-cells and B-cells Secondary Lymph tissue: o Enlarge with infection due to proliferation of lymph cells o More of a diagnostic markers that help determine what is happening within the body o Tonsils, Spleen, Lymph Nodes Diffuse or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT):
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o Guards the Respiratory, Genitourinal tracts, and Alimentary Canals Not enclosed in a capsule Any chance of the body part being exposed to the external world Lymph Node: Highly organized lymphoid organs Two distinct functions : 1. Filter foreign materials from lymph before it returns to the blood stream 2. Center for proliferation and response of immune cell
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  • Spring '14
  • Bennett,SusanElizab
  • Leukemia, Bone marrow, white blood cell

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