Chapter 17 Notes - Chapter 17 Notes Cardiovascular System Heart Arterial Vessels takes oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body tissues Venous

Chapter 17 Notes - Chapter 17 Notes Cardiovascular System...

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Chapter 17 Notes: Cardiovascular SystemHeart:Arterial Vessels takes oxygenated blood away from the heartto the body tissuesVenous Vessels brings deoxygenated blood back to the heartfrom the tissuesFunctions of the Heart:Transports nutrients and other materials to tissuesOxygen, glucose, fats, cholesterol, amino acidsSignaling molecules such as hormones and cytokines WBCs and clotting factorsRemove waste from tissuesMetabolism and/or excretion via the liverFiltration by the kidneys and excretion as urineCO2removed from the blood by the lungsCardiovascular Disease is the #1 killer in the USHeart Valves:Atrioventricular Valves (AV valves) control flow from the atria to ventriclesMitral valve(Bicupsid) – Left side Tricuspid Valve– Right sideSemilunar valves control flood from the ventricles to:Body via Aortic Semilunar valveLungs via Pulmonary Semilunar valvePapillary Muscles:Prevent valve regurgitationDamage to papillary muscles can allow the ventricular pressure to push blood back into the atrium (regurgitationContraction of papillary muscles occur with ventricular contractionBlood Flow through the heart:Deoxygenated blood flows into the R atrium via Superior/Inferior Vena Cava and Coronary SinusThen deoxygenated blood flows from the R atrium through the Tricuspid valve into the R VentricleThen deoxygenated blood flow out of the R ventricle through the Pulmonary Semilunar valve into the Pulmonary arteriesThen Deoxygenated blood is taken into the lungs becomes oxygenated through the pulmonary capillariesThen oxygenated blood flows out of the lungs via pulmonary veins and into the L atriumThe oxygenated blood then flows from the L atrium through the Mitral valve and into the L ventricleThen oxygenated blood flows out of the L ventricle through the Aortic Semilunar Valve and into the Aorta to be taken to the body tissues via arterial vesselsBlood Vessels:
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Systemic: Aorta/Arteries Arterioles Capillaries venules Veins/VenaCavaPulmonary: P. Artery/Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins/P.VeinBlood moves fastest through the Arteries and VeinsGas exchange takes place in the capillariesBlood moves the slowest through the capillaries n/c they have a large cross sectional areaLaminar and Turbulent Flow:Laminar Flow:oStreamline; interior of blood vessel is smooth and of equal diameter along its length oOutermost layer is moving slowest and center moving fastestoNo soundTurbulent Flow:oInterrupted oFluid passes a constriction, sharp turn, rough surfaceoPartially responsible for hear soundsoSounds due to turbulence are not normal in arteries and is probable due to some constriction; increases the probability of thrombosisHeart Sounds:oNormal Open Valve:Laminar flow = quietoStenotic valve = narrowed valve Turbulent flow = murmuro
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