DAR - Chapter I Introduction The term insurgency has...

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Chapter I Introduction The term insurgency has evolved over the decades. Although synonymous with revolt and rebellion, the term “insurgency” has a different connotation. According to Allswell Osini Muzan: insurgency is one objective of organized terrorism, terrorism is one of several strategies of insurgency. Both terrorism and insurgency may be used by states in their internal and foreign policy operations. Terrorism and terrorist tactics constitute part of the strategies and tactics of insurgency. 1 Terrorism is a contested concept. While there are many national and regional definitions, there is no universal legal definition approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations (the one proposed by the Security Council in Res. 1566 (2004) is non-binding, lacking legal authority in international law). The Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism of the 6th (legal) Committee of the General Assembly has, with some interruptions, been trying to reach a legal definition since 1972 - but in vain. In the absence of a legal definition, attempts have been made since the 1980s to reach agreement on an academic consensus definition. 2 According to Glenn Greenwald: The application of the term "Terrorist" by the U.S. Government has nothing to do with how that term is commonly understood, but is instead exploited solely as a means to punish those who defy U.S. dictates and reward those who advance American interests and those of its allies 3 The definition of terrorism as compiled by Alex P. Schmid states terrorism: Is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property in order to coerce or intimidate a government or the civilian population in furtherance of political or social objectives. 4 1 Muzan, A. (2014). Insurgency in Nigeria: Addressing the Causes as Part of the Solution. African Human Rights Law Journal 14(1), 217-243. 2 The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism | Schmid | Perspectives on Terrorism. (n.d.). Retrieved September 03, 2016, from - terrorism-definition/html 3 Greenwald, G. (n.d.). Retrieved September 03, 2016, from - fighter/257245/ 1
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Whereas rebellion can be violent and non-violent, thus, necessarily unlawful, insurgency usually goes beyond civil resistance and implies armed resistance to the authority in Government. In most cases, insurgency is considered illegitimate by Governments since it threatens its sovereignty. Insurgency may take different forms and can last over many years. Historically, many countries around the world, including the United States, France and Germany, experienced periods of insurgency. 5 Oftentimes, insurgency is a natural response of the people to the ineffective and schismatic policies or blatant iniquities of corrupt, oppressive governments. Such insurgents may gain the support of the international community who are sympathetic to their cause for a regime change. For instance,
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