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Unformatted text preview: 1 Comparative Politics Final Study Guide Fall 2007 JAPAN keiretsu : same thing as zaibatsu; large family-controlled banking and industrial combines in Japan- e.g. Mitsubishi, Sony- disallows competition and creates inefficiency in business SCAP : Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers General MacArthur- could issue directives that had to be obeyed by the Japanese leaders and populace- result of WWII- disarming, democratizing, and permanently demilitarizing Japan MITI : Ministry of International Trade and Industry (now the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry)- iron triangle: Diet : National Assembly; defers power to governing party, coalition and bureacracy- House of Councilors upper house o 247 members 149 SNTV 98 PR- House of Representatives lower house o 480 members 300 SMPD 180 PR Single Non-Transferable Vote : multi-member constituency elections factionalism : obliges candidates from the same party to compete against each other in multimember districts- prevents centralization of power- weakens power and authority of party leaders - encourages elitism and nepotism- contributes to importance of money in politics koenkai : pipelines though which funds and other support are conveyed to legislatures and through which the legislators can distribute favors to constituents in return amakudari : decent from heaven- describes the move from bureaucracy to business export-led growth: export oriented industrialization (EOI)- a trade and economic policy aiming to speed-up the industrialization process of a country through exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage o reduced tariff barriers o floating exchange rate 2 devaluation of national currency o government support Self-Defense Force (SDF) : Japans army; cannot be deployed, can only protect itself- 2001: SDF allowed to be deployed outside Japan for peace keeping Major Political Parties : - Communist most left- Sot- Komeito: clean government party o government without the corruption- DPJ: Democratic Party of Japan o not as actively pro-reform as it claimed and quickly fell apart- LDP: Liberal Democratic Party o regularly wins o classic example of Japanese consensus politics o stayed in power for long time presided over economic boom of 1950 factionalism in the party opposition parties couldnt cooperate long enough strong koenkai Japanese voters were conservative, preferred continuity and consensus adapted its policies able to raise money clientalism : a style of politics in which more powerful actors attend to specific and individuals needs (non pragmatic) of client in exchange for support RUSSIA command economy: everything that happens in the economy is controlled by the state- Gosplan : policy under Gorbachev; 5 yrs o production o prices o distribution communism: a social, economic, and political system in which power and property are held in common, all decisions are made communally, and all member of the system are equal in the eyes...
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