Comparative Politics Final Paper

Comparative Politics Final Paper - 4:21:00 PM Comparative...

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23:21 Comparative Politics Patrick O’Neil  What is Democracy?   A. The word democracy comes from the Greek word ‘demos’-meaning the  common people, and ‘kratia’- meaning power or rule.  Democracy at its most fundamental is a system where power resides with the  people. o The people may exercise that power either directly or indirectly, and the  exercise of power typically takes three forms: participation  (voting/elections), competition (such as that between political parties), and  liberty (such as freedom of speech/assembly). Democracy can be fully defined as political power exercised either directly or  indirectly through participation, competition, and liberty. B. The more specific term  liberal democracy  is used to indicate that they are  referring specifically to a political system that promotes participation, competition,  and liberty. Liberal democracies are rooted in the ideology of liberalism, with its emphasis  on individual rights and freedoms.  The Origins of Liberal Democracy and the Rule of Law A. Truly complex democratic practices have their roots in ancient Greece,  specifically Athens and its public rule, which was a much different type of  democracy. Typically found in small communities, ancient Greek direct democracy allowed  the public (excluding women/children/slaves) to participate directly in the  affairs of government, choosing policies and making governing decisions. The  people were the state.  B. In contrast, in its modern form, democracy is one of representative rule, often  called  indirect democracy  or  republicanism .
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Republicanism has its origins in the Roman Empire, and broadly defined,  republicanism emphasizes the separation of powers within a state and the  representation of the public through elected officials (as opposed to the  unaccountable powers of a monarchy or the direct participation of the  people). 
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23:21 What Democracy is… and is Not Philippe C. Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl What Democracy Is A. “The liberal conception of democracy advocates circumscribing the public  realm as narrowly as possible, while the socialist or social-democratic approach  would extend that realm through regulation, subsidization, and in some cases,  collective ownership of property.” (pg 248).
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23:21 Constitutional Choices for New Democracies Arend Lijphart A. Two fundamental choices that confront architects of new democratic  constitutions are those between plurality elections and proportional  representation (PR) and between parliamentary and presidential forms of  government.  Lijphart’s analysis shows that the combination of parliamentarism with 
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Comparative Politics Final Paper - 4:21:00 PM Comparative...

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