Chemistry Notes Fall 2007

Chemistry Notes Fall 2007 - August 20, 2007 Chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: August 20, 2007 Chemistry Lecture Notes 1 Ch. 1 Matter and Measurement 1.1 Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter(smallest particles that retain the chemical properties of an element) 1.2 States of Matter Gas No fixed volume No shape Low density Easily compressed Liquid Fixed volume No shape High density Hard to compress Solid Fixed volume Fixed shape High density Hard to compress Pure Substances Distinct properties and a definite composition that does not vary from sample to sample Ex. Pure water(H2O) Two Types of Pure Substances Elements Cant be chemically decomposed into simpler substances Compounds Composed of two or more elements Can be broken down into more elemental particles. (ex. Electrolysis of water) Law of constant composition or definite proportions Elemental composition of pure compounds always the same.(ex. Water=H2O) M ixtures Composition can vary Classification of Matter Figure on PAGE 9 1.3 Properties of Matter Physical properties Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc. Chemical Properties Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc. I ntensive Properties Independent of the amount of the substance that is present. Density, boiling point, color, etc. Extensive Properties Dependent upon the amount of the substance present. Mass, volume, energy, etc. Separation of M ixtures Filtration Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions. Distillation Separates homogeneous mixture on the basis of differences in boiling point. Chromatography Separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent. August 22, 2007 Chemistry Lecture Notes 2 FOR QU IZ 1: Learn elements(names/symbols) in the Periodic table, Group 1a, 2a, 3a up to Ga, all the nonmetals, 1st row of the transition metals, and Ag(SILVER) 1.4 Units of Measurement Units used in scientific measurements are those of the Metric System Numbers without units are meaningless TABLE 1.4: SI Base Units TABLE 1.5: Prefixes Used in the Metric System Temperature Scales: Based on Water (Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit) Temperature Kelvin(K) and Celsius( C) have equal sizes unit: K=C+273.15 Fahrenheit and Celsius are related: C=5/9 (F-32) F=9/5(C+32) Derived SI Units Volume of a cube= (length) 3 Volume= area x height Volume= width x length x height Volume of a cylinder= r 2 h Volume of a sphere= 4/3 ( r 3 ) Density Physical property of a substance D=m/v 1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement Exact and I nexact numbers Exact #: Numbers whose values are known exactly I nexact #: Numbers whose values have some uncertainty (measured values) Significant Figures 1. All digits(1-9) are significant 2. Zeroes between two digits are significant....
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Chemistry Notes Fall 2007 - August 20, 2007 Chemistry...

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