ENVS-438,538 Lecture 2

ENVS-438,538 Lecture 2 - SPECIES Check out...

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SPECIES: Check out http://tolweb.org/tree/ http://plants.usda.gov/
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There are approximately 1.6 million species described to date . From various extrapolation methods there may be 5 to 30 million total.
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There are approximately 1.6 million species described to date . From various extrapolation methods there may be 5 to 30 million total. Genus Agra F. 1801
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DEVELOPING PRIORITIES IN PRESERVING SPECIES DIVERSITY: ARE ALL SPECIES EQUAL? Sometimes species are valued more if distantly related (“evolutionary uniqueness”) Also, less value to members of speciose clades (“redundant”) Emphasize value of basal (“ancestral”) taxa
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DEVELOPING PRIORITIES IN PRESERVING SPECIES DIVERSITY: Higher taxa can be important. Marine systems have many PHYLA but few SPECIES
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DEVELOPING PRIORITIES IN PRESERVING SPECIES DIVERSITY: Can consider interspecific interactions and ecosystem roles in conservation value: Ecosystem services – “the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life” (Daily 1997)
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DEVELOPING PRIORITIES IN PRESERVING SPECIES DIVERSITY: Can consider interspecific interactions and ecosystem roles in conservation value: Ecosystem services
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0 10 20 30 40 50 Number of Species Ecosystem Function “The Law of Nature” MacArthur 1955
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0 10 20 30 40 50 Number of Species Ecosystem Function “Rivet Hypothesis” Erhlich & Erhlich 1981
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0 10 20 30 40 50 Number of Species Ecosystem Function e.g. Naeem et al. 2012 Recent empirical studies…
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DEVELOPING PRIORITIES IN PRESERVING SPECIES DIVERSITY: Can consider interspecific interactions and ecosystem roles in conservation value: Keystone species – a species which has a disproportionately critical impact on the community relative to other species
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Atlantic White Cedar ( Chamaecyparis thyoides ) DEVELOPING PRIORITIES IN PRESERVING SPECIES DIVERSITY:
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Pine Barrens Treefrog ( Hyla andersonii ) Timber Rattlesnake ( Crotalus horridus )
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Species: What are they, and are they “real”?
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SYSTEMATICS AND SPECIES CONCEPTS Systematics is the study of pattern in biological diversity Focuses primarily on species level and above; modern systematics seeks to understand evolutionary relationships among life forms -other relationships ( e.g. community structure) come under other fields (ecology) Let’s talk in more detail about WHAT a species is…
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SPECIES: Elaphrus ruscarius Say 1834
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SPECIES: Elaphrus ruscarius Say 1834 Thomas Say (from Philadelphia) “Father of descriptive entomology in the United States”
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E. ruscarius (“green morph”) E. ruscarius (“copper morph”)
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