exam 3 review

exam 3 review - Chapter 11: Key Terms adenylyl cyclase...

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Chapter 11: Key Terms adenylyl cyclase phospholipase C phosphodiesterase a and α mating types synaptic signaling hormonal signaling cyclic AMP (cAMP) diacylglycerol (DAG) G protein G-protein-linked receptor hormone inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ) ligand ligand-gated ion channel local regulator protein kinase protein phosphatase reception receptor tyrosine kinase response scaffolding protein signal transduction pathway transduction Concepts: 1. The basic signal-transduction pathway used for mating in yeast. The two mating types and their corresponding chemical signals, or mating factors is ‘a’ and α(alpha). * page 202 fig 11.2 for explanation!* 2. Define paracrine signaling and give an example. Definition: A secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator ( a growth factor for example) into the extra cellular fluid. 3. Define local regulation and explain why hormones are not local regulators. When cells are influenced in their vicinity. They deal with long distance signaling and can reach virtually all body cells. 4. How plant and animal hormones travel to target cells? The circulatory system transports hormones throughout the body to reach target cells with appropriate receptors. 5. List and briefly define the three stages of cell signaling. 1.Reception: The target cells detection of a signal molecule coming from the outside of the cell. 2.Transduction: The binding of the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initiating the process of transduction. 3.Response: The transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response. Pg 204 fig 11.5 for pic. 6. Know the nature of a ligand-receptor interaction and state how such interactions initiate a signal-transduction system. Generally causes a receptor protein to undergo a change in conformation(shape). This shape change directly actives the receptor, allowing it to interat with other cellular molecules. 7. Where signal receptors may be located in target cells? ? could not find! 8. Understand the mechanism of G-protein-linked receptors, tyrosine-kinase receptors, and ligand-gated ion channels. Ask for study guide book 9. Define the term second messenger. understand the role of these molecules in signaling pathways. Definition: small, water soluble molecules that rapidly relays signals to a cell’s interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein. Participate in pathways intiated by both G-protein-linked receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. ( most common 2 nd messangers are cyclic AMP and calcium ions, Ca 2+. 10. How cyclic AMP is formed and how it causes signal information in target cells?
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Binding of an extracelluar signal to a G-protein linked receptor actives a G protein that may activate adenylyl cyclase, a membrane protein that converts ATP to cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP oftein activates protein kinase “A”, which phosphorylates other proteins. Phosphodiesterase converts cyclic AMP
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exam 3 review - Chapter 11: Key Terms adenylyl cyclase...

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