Chapter-03 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 3"Settling the...

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 3: “Settling the Northern Colonies” I. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism A. Beginnings 1. In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg cathedral. a. He ignited the Protestant Reformation. 2. John Calvin preached Calvinism a. Basic doctrines were stated in the 1536 document entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion. b. Stated that all humans were weak and wicked. c. Only the predestined could go to heaven, no matter what. d. Calvinists were expected to seek “conversions,” signs that they were one of the predestined, and afterwards, lead “sanctified lives.” 3. In England, King Henry VIII was breaking his ties with the Holy Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. 4. Some people, called Puritans, were influenced to totally reform the Christian faith. B. Puritans 1. All believed that only “visible saints” should be admitted to church membership. 2. Separatists vowed to break away from the Church of England because the “saints” would have to sit with the “damned.” 3. King James I, father of the beheaded Charles I, harassed the Separatists out of England because he thought that if people could defy him as their spiritual leader, they might defy him as their political ruler. II. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth A. The Voyage 1. The Separatists that left were from Holland, where they had fled to after they had left England. a. They were concerned that their children were getting to “Dutchified.” b. They wanted a place where they were free to worship their own religion and could live and die as good Puritans. 2. After negotiating with the Virginia Company, the Separatists left Holland and sailed for 65 days at sea on the Mayflower until they arrived off the rocky coast of New England in 1620, a trip in which only one person died and one person was born. a. Less than half of the pilgrims on the Mayflower were actually Separatists. b. Contrary to myth, the Pilgrims undertook a few surveys before deciding to settle at Plymouth, an area far from Virginia. c. The Pilgrims became squatters, people without legal right to land and without specific authority to establish government. 3. Captain Myles Standish (a.k.a. Captain Shrimp) proved to be a great Indian fighter and negotiator.
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4. Before disembarking from ship, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, a set of rules by which to obey. a. Though it wasn’t a constitution, it did set the standard for later constitutions. 5. In the winter of 1620-21, only 44 of the 102 survived. 6. 1621 brought bountiful harvests, though, and the first Thanksgiving was celebrated that year. 7. William Bradford, chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in the annual elections, was a great leader, and helped Plymouth to survive and trade fur, fish, and lumber. 8.
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Chapter-03 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 3"Settling the...

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