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Unformatted text preview: Philosophy 110 Final Study Guide Professor Leddington Spring 2008 *The Mind-Body Problem* Gertler: “Mind and Body Dualism” • Argues against the Identity Thesis o Identity Thesis: every physical state is identical to some kind of mental state. o Dualism: (Descartes) thinking thing, separate from body mind acts separate/without body. we are not able to see the brain but we have been scientifically informed by common sense and this leads us to believe that the mind is in the head/brain the mind exists within the brain. The Identity Thesis challenges the Dualist view states that every type of mental state is identical with some type of physical state. • Example:; pain is (identical with) C-fiber stimulation Dualism denies the I.T. by claiming instead that some mental states are not identical with physical states and as long as there are some mental states that are not identical with physical state = the I.T. fails (even if it is just one that you find) • Thought Experiment: one is able to experience pain while disembodied • Does conceivability track possibility? o Gertler argues conceivability does not track possibility under certain circumstances o Concepts which are at stake in her thought experiment: Concept of matter Concept of pain there is no hidden essence of pain/either it exists or it does not exist. Our concept includes the following concept that pain has no hidden essence. • As soon as you experience pain you know what pain is, there is nothing further to know our concept of pain is complete/adequate. CONTRAST CASE: (H2O) say you conceive the concept of water as H3O you are able to conceive water that way because your concept is defective because part of our concept of things such as water can have a hidden essence = there is a hidden essence. • Seems as though physicalism is a scientifically informed view yet its claims are not cohesive with the actual scientific method. o Water: is H2O because we studied its chemical make up o Pain: we could run tests where pain + C-stimulation are correlated but the scientific method states that correlation does not equal causation . thus you cannot assert the conclusion simply from the correlation, can’t claim something just by empirical experimentation. • Gertler argues that these sorts of claims cannot be claimed by empirical experiments but instead should be claimed through thought experiments. • Examples of thought experiments: o You can establish the possibility but you can’t do the same thing with the impossibility – thus, must conduct a thought experiment. 1) you have never seen an object that was blue all over and at the same time orange all over this is impossible, how could you establish such a thing through empirical experimentations you ARE able to imagine such a thing through imagination (thought experiment) 2) “A married bachelor” this claim is impossible. You are not able to confirm this impossibility empirically of a “married...
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- Spring '08
- Philosophy, person, pains, physical state, bundle theory