Exam_review[1] - Classics Review - Final Exam Delphi Apollo...

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Classics Review - Final Exam Delphi Apollo was the patron god of Delphi, a site made famous by the oracular predictions given there by the Pythia (the female oracle). She would make predictions in gibberish, and priests would interpret them, often ambiguously so that several possible outcomes could fit with the prediction. The priests also based their “interpretations” on their knowledge of current events. The Delphic oracle had a lot of political clout, and was heavily involved in current events. The Greek Polis The ancient Greeks believed that living in a polis (city-state), as part of a community, gave us our humanity. To them, the polis was cultural, social, economic, military, religious - everything. The word politeia is derived from polis, and is best translated as “constitution;” however, its definition is broader than that, and can be extended to describe a way of life. Sparta The Spartan people were free from the majority of manual labor, as publicly owned slaves called helots performed chores for them; in particular, they took care of the city-state’s agricultural needs. They outnumbered the Spartans by a lot, and the city-state lived in constant danger of a helot revolution. However, because the helots took care of things like agriculture, the Spartans were free to pursue a military lifestyle, and they counted on this to keep their enemies as well as the helots in check. The Spartan constitution (or politeia) was set in place by Lycurgus, and combines elements of monarchic, oligarchic, and democratic governments. Monarchic: two kings ruled simultaneously, and held office for life. Oligarchic: council of elders from noble families, elected magistrates. Democratic: the Assembly, a reactive body of Spartan citizens who voted (but could not take the initiative in anything). Their constitution also featured a redistribution of property (both land and movable property) and an ascetic lifestyle, as the Spartans were opposed to luxury on principle. Sparta as a community was very isolated, and it was difficult for a Spartan to leave the city or trade with foreigners. This Spartan constitution (known as a “mixed” constitution, because it combined different forms of government) would be a great inspiration to later thinkers. Women in the polis held a unique place compared to women in other Greek city-states. The ultimate goal for the Spartan city-state was to produce strong children, children who were considered the property of the state and not of their parents. To this end, women were allowed to exercise and be athletic, in the hopes that they would produce better children. Marriages were also not exclusive, and extramarital sex was permitted if all parties involved agreed and the match would supposedly lead to good children.
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Pericles’ Funeral Oration Reread Pericles’ Funeral Oration. Plato’s Symposium
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2008 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Forget during the Spring '08 term at Centre College.

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Exam_review[1] - Classics Review - Final Exam Delphi Apollo...

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