Bold_Word_Definitions - Bold Word Definitions Chapter One...

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Bold Word Definitions Chapter One Conserved – in the context of evolution, referring to a trait that is passed on from a common ancestor to two or more descendant species Ontogeny – The process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime – that is, grows up and grows old Neuron – Also called nerve cell. The basic unit of the nervous system Somatic intervention – an approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves manipulating body structure of function and looking for resultant changes in behavior Behavioral intervention – an approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves intervening in the behavior of an organism and looking for resultant changes in body structure of function Neural plasticity – also called neuron-plasticity. The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment Reductionism – the scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it Dualism – the notion, promoted by Descartes, that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions, while the body is subject only to material interactions Phrenology – the belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavioral faculties Chapter 2 Histology – the study of tissue structure Gross neuroanatomy – anatomical features of the nervous system that are apparent to the naked eye Neurophysiology – the study of the life processes of neurons Chemical neuroanatomy – the distribution of key chemicals, such as transmitters and enzymes, within the structure of the nervous system Neuropharmacology – the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior.
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Neuron or nerve cell – the basic unit of the nervous system, each composed of a cell body, receptive extensions(s) (dendrites), and a transmitting extension (axon) Neuron doctrine – the hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally, metabolically, and functionally Synapse – a cellular location at which information is transmitted from one neuron to another Glial cells – non-neural brain cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other types of support to the brain Mitochondrion – a cellular organelle that provides metabolic energy for the cell’s processes Cell nucleus – the spherical central structure of a cell that contains the chromosomes Ribosomes – structures in the cell body where genetic information is translated (proteins are produced) Dendrite – one of the extensions of the cell body that are the receptive surfaces of the neuron Input zone – the part of a neuron that receives information, from other neurons or from specialized sensory structures. Usually corresponds to the cell’s dendrites Cell body or soma – the region of a neuron that is defined by the presence of the cell nucleus Integration zone – the part of the neuron that initiates nerve activity if the sum of all
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Bold_Word_Definitions - Bold Word Definitions Chapter One...

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