Archaeology Final Exam Study Guide

Archaeology Final Exam Study Guide - 11:22:00 AM...

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10/12/2007 13:22:00 Anthropology 2200 Fall 2007 Review Sheet: Exam 3 Remember that the exam covers both the book and the lectures and that there is information that is unique to both of these. Although the exam emphasizes the lectures, you need to know the book as well. I have highlighted specific sites, etc., on this sheet that are in the book but will not be in your notes (or, at least, will not be in your notes in as much detail). We will also take short-answer and multiple choice questions worth a total of 25 points from the first two exams, so remember to study them as well. Red: Only in the Book Black: In my notes
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General Issues: 10/12/2007 13:22:00 Definitions/characteristics of “states” and cities States The kinds of societies that we call “states” arise all over the world o They all have similarities We take the social differences that we see at Tell- es- Sawaan, and we amplify them o We see these in things like palaces o Ex: Mayan cities, ancient Egypt, every where! o These are really big houses, that only the highest level of society is using o This is one of the clearest archaeological signatures of wealth and power o In these societies, ruler ship was really public o They live in big houses that tower over everybody, generally in the middle of town o Dramatic evidence of social differentiation o The act of placing the rich high up, has an effect on people Monopoly over power o In a physical manner o It is almost non existent to see a society that we call a state that did not have a monopoly over power and force o Ex: Mayaan sacrifice War
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o War is another similarity throughout states o Warriorship was a role in society Craft specialization o Tied to the elite o Elaborate cultural material o Using precious metal that often comes from a long ways away o It also takes a lot of practice and skill o Ex: King Tut’s solid gold death mask o Certain households will specialize in jewelry manufacturing If you are doing this them you aren’t growing food This idea of surplus was clearly important to these communities King Pacal o Mayan king with an elaborate burial o The cover of his sarcophagas o They celebrate individual people o We know his name for sure o The society that he was apart of lifted him up to a level where even today we know a lot about him Writing o Becomes very central to these communities as well o It is a way for people to keep record of everything, from economic transitions to marriages
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Cities Variation in the organization of cities Similarities between city states in Mesopotamia in that they are walled cities Political leaders were also religious leaders Grannery was right next to the temple which suggests that there was control in that aspect Indus valley cities: There was some evidence for cultural identification in that cities
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