Exam #1 Study Notes - Exam 1 General Issues to Understand...

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Exam # 1 General Issues to Understand The scope of archaeology and its place in general anthropology Key intellectual shifts in history of field Basic survey and excavation strategies, strengths and weaknesses Importance of chronology Key changes in evolutionary sequence from Australopithecus to Neanderthals Problems with past interpretations of hominid sites and lifeways, changes in  interpretations over time Specifics (terms, places, techniques, species, periods, etc.) Definition of archaeology Archaeology:  The study of humanity through the analysis of the material  remains of human behaviour: the study of the things that people made and use in the  past and that have fortuitously preserved. Archaeologists often focus on human cultural  evolution. 
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Subfields of anthropology Cultural Anthropology Ethnography:  o When a cultural anthropologist lives among a group of people or a  cultural group and interacts with them daily, often for an extended  period of time, observing their behavious Participant/ Observer Biological Anthropology Primatology:  o The study of primates Modern Human Biology Paleoanthropology o Anthropological study of the evolution of our species.  Paleoanthropoligists study the skeletal remains and cultures of ancient  hominids o Osteology: Related to bones Paleopathology o The study of ancient disease Linguistic Anthropology The study of language
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Anthropological Archaeology The study of variation in material culture in time and space James Usser        1581- 1656 Short chronology of the Earth Anglican Archbishop Develops the chronology of the Earth based upon Biblical texts in 1650 Said that the Earth had been created in 4004 BC.  o Therefor, he thought that the Earth was only about 6000 years old He believed that Creation occurred October 23 at 9:00 am o Funny enough, this was the beginning of Cambridge University’s fall  term (which he attended) This date is still used by some fundamental Christians Moundbuilders controversy Where did these mounds come from? o The mounds were attributed to every group except for the Native  Americans o Skeletons of the mound builders, as well as artifacts were found in the  mounds o People insisted that the mound builders were wiped out by the “savage  Indians” o Squire and Davis: Surveyed the land of the mounds “Mound City” They also thought that the mounds were too sophisticated for  Native Americans
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Agreed that they were created by superior people on their way  to Mexico  o
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