Exam1Notes_Ecology - Exam 1 Notes What is ecology o The study of ecosystems how plants and animals interact o What influences the abundance of organisms

Exam1Notes_Ecology - Exam 1 Notes What is ecology o The...

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8/23/16Exam 1 Notes8-23-16What is ecology?oThe study of ecosystems – how plants and animals interact oWhat influences the abundance of organisms Predation oFactors in nature that influence where species occuroHow many individuals are in a population and where they occuroEcology is the scientific study of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms Hierarchical organization of life: (what we’ll be focusing on)oIndividual organismsoPopulationsoCommunitiesoEcosystems oLandscapesoBiosphereEcological Hierarchy:oOrganismal: behavioral, physiological and morphological ways an individual deals with environmentoPopulation: group of individuals of single species at a particular space of timeMust have the potential to interact and interbreed with other organisms (same time same place)oCommunity: a group of species in a particular place and time AND the interactions that bind themMultiple species in the same place at same timeoEcosystem: a set of interacting species plus the physical space they occupyThe organism community PLUS the abiotic (physical space – water, air, soil) they interact withoLandscape: a large land area composed of a patchwork of interacting ecosystems Forestry ecosystems, agricultural ecosystems, wetlands, etc. can intertwine Ecology and Evolution:oHow are they linked?Ecology: role in environment is a result of evolutionary pastEvolution: future evolution depends on current ecological stateoReading: “PATTERNS AND POWER OF PHENOTYPIC SELECTION IN NATURE” Biological Evolution:oA genetic changein a trait over timeoA change in gene frequency in a population over timeoCauses of evolution:Artificial selectionsGenetic drifImmigrationNatural selection
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8/23/16Founder events: colonizing a new areaEmigrationAdaptive evolution:oGenetic change in population that leads to higher fitnessFitness:success of a phenotype relative to other phenotypes; in terms of reproduction or survivalWhy increase horse body size? Food option, less predators, etc.oWhat causes adaptive evolution?MutationsNatural selection – driving forceNatural Selection:oDifferential survival or reproduction of phenotypesoRequirements:Phenotypic variationDifferential survival/reproductionoIf natural selection occurs, is there evolution? NOEvolution has to have genetic change Types of natural selection:oDirectional – peppered moth example; body size of cheetahsoStabilizingoDiversifying8-25-16oConstraints on adaptation:oEvolutionary constraints: factors that prevent evolution of optimal designoChanging environment – the environment is changing so ofen and so quickly that natural selection can never really catch up (pepper moth)oLaws of physics – just because individuals might be bigger and faster, doesn’t mean that
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