journ - Johannes Gutenberg-German printer invented the...

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Johannes Gutenberg -German printer, invented the printing press (1440s, 1450s); credited with creating movable type printing; first book printed was the Bible -this invention was called the “third revolution,” after writing and the alphabet -the printing press allowed the production of cheap literature and the reproduction of documents without error. -printed materials were now cheap enough to reach the masses; allowed the preservation of information Silence Dogood -Much of the New England Courant was devoted to “letters to the editor” poking fun at the city’s morals, manners, and authorities; the letters were signed pseudonyms -April 2, 1722: Benjamin Franklin wrote his first letter to the editor, signing himself as Silence Dogood, a prudish widow of a country minister writing to the publisher. -“She” wrote at least once a fortnight, writing about manners, scoffing at women’s clothing and hypocrisy in religion, and lampooning Harvard College students. -Ben Franklin’s brother, James, owned the paper so Ben slid the letters under the door anonymously; they are historically notable because they are the first examples of quintessential American humor with wry, homespun folksy tales and pointed observations (dry, satiric) Common Sense -January, 1776: pamphlet by Thomas Paine, who was an advocate of the Enlightenment -very important source of info circulating the colonies; just as important as newspapers at the time in spreading the revolution; the pamphlet condemned monarchy and pointed out the senselessness of British rules -150,000 copies of the pamphlet were purchased but many more heard it as it was read in public squares (when they could get away with it) or in taverns. -Common Sense was the key document that won over the third of the population who had previously been neutral about revolution (who didn’t care either way) The Boston Gazette -run by Benjamin Edes and John Gill, it was the first significant paper to advocate the revolution; the chief radical colonial paper of the time (the city’s second oldest paper) -1764: after the Stamp Act, the paper started to take hard position against England -Samuel Adams wrote editorials under the name “Populus” about mistreatment of colonials by England for the paper -could be called propaganda for the Revolution Alexis de Tocqueville -early 19 th century; upper class Frenchman, interested in politics -came to U.S. in 1831 and traveled for 9 months in order to study this new democratic society by observing and talking to people
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