ThomasBIOS275Week5HW - 1 Running head BIOS275WEEK5HW...

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1 Running head: BIOS275WEEK5HW BIOS275WEEK5HW Jessica Thomas DeVry University
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2 Running head: BIOS275WEEK5HW BIOS275 Week 5HW 1. Describe the actions of these body hormones: estradiol, progesterone, oxytocin, follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Estradiol is a female sex hormone produced by the ovaries, adrenal gland and the placenta during pregnancy. Estradiol is the most important hormone during a female’s reproductive years, and is required for reproductive and sexual function as well as having an impact on the health of other organs and tissues. Estradiol acts primarily as a growth hormone for the reproductive organs. Estradiol also increases growth of the womb’s muscle layer, the myometrium. It also maintains oocytes which are the eggs in the ovary and triggers a series of events that lead to ovulation. Progesterone is a hormone that stimulates and regulates various functions and plays an important role in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone is produced in the ovaries, placenta, and adrenal glands. This hormone helps prepare for conception, pregnancy, and regulate monthly menstrual cycles. Oxytocin has two main actions in the body. Contraction of the uterus during childbirth and lactation. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine muscles to contract and also increases production of prostaglandins which increase the contractions. During breastfeeding, oxytocin helps the movement of milk into the breast, allowing it to be excreted by the nipple. Oxytocin is also present in men which plays a role in sperm movement and production of testosterone by the testes . Follicle stimulating hormone is one of the hormones crucial to pubertal development and the function of women’s ovaries and men’s testes . FSH stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation . It also increases estradiol production. In men, follicle stimulating hormone acts on the cells of the testes to stimulate sperm production. Luteinising hormone (LH) stimulates cells in the testes to produce testosterone . Testosterone also exerts effects all around the body to generate male characteristics such as increased muscle mass, enlargement of the larynx to generate a deep voice and the growth of facial and body hair.
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