EXAM 1 study guide - GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew...

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GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Spring Semester 2008 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE INTRODUCTION Culture- Shared set of beliefs and practices uniting a group Enculturation- infants learning by being in the culture Acculturation- cultural change when 2 groups meet and exchange ideas Appropriation- Take cultural traits and make your own Intra-cultural exchange- exchange within culture Inter-cultural exchange- exchange between cultures Eurocentric- looking at other cultures from your own bias Organology- study of musical instruments Aerophones- vibrating column of air Chordophones- vibrating string Membranophones- vibrating skin/head Idiophones- self vibrating Electronophones- electricity required Frequency = pitch- high or low Amplitude = volume- loudness Spectrum = timbre- quality Rhythm- series of oral events with time relationship, pulse Meter- duple or triple rhythm Rubato- No specific rhythm Melody- main music we hear Scale- series of notes Ornamentation- extra notes Syllabic(every syllable has different notes), mellismatic singing (multiple notes per syllable) Harmony- middle of the music Interval(distance between notes), chord- 3 or more notes simultaneously Texture- how the instruments relate Monophony- single voice Heterophony- 2 or more voices Polyphony- 2 or more different melodies @ same time Form- way the music is arranged Verse-chorus- repeating chorus after verse Blues- repeats AABA AMERICAN INDIAN MUSIC Arrival of Indians in America- 50000bc across berring straight European Contact- 1000 different cultural groups, music important Difficulties of studying Indian Music- Oral culture, no text to study Role of music in native culture- intimately linked to ritual Link to ritual- never used outside of rituals Ownership of songs- not transferred unless by gift or sale, property of a tribe Vision quest- go into the wild and a song comes to them Spiritual power- to heal or accomplish things Efficacy- success of the song Musical characteristics Song Form- not much harmony, short phrases, repetition Vocables- syllables with no meaning Scales- 2,4, or 6 note scale Musical instruments Drums, rattles, flutes Chordophones- not in traditional Indian music Regional differences Plains style- intertribal, pow-wows, males, main drum, tense voice, downward contour Southwest style- double headed drum, wide leaps in melodies Northwest Pacific- powerful songs owned by chiefs, marks your societal position, relaxed voice Pan-Indian movements- blurs distinctions Trail of tears- mid 19 th century, forced into reservations, many died Ghost dance- 19 th century, vision white men will disappear and traditional ways will return
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2008 for the course GMUS 203 taught by Professor Connel during the Spring '08 term at James Madison University.

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EXAM 1 study guide - GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew...

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