POLI SCI 139 STUDY GUIDE1.Republic: A form of government by nonhereditary rule, providing supreme power to the people and its elected officials. In 1979, Iran transformed itself into a republic after the overthrow of the Shah and establishment of an Islamic constitution.2.Operation Ajax: Eisenhower agreed to a coup of the Iranian government in 1953 a mission led by the CIA and MI6. Successful overthrow of Mossadeq and reinstatement ofthe Shah changed Iran’s situation by modernizing the economy and social sphere.3.“Islamic Government”: Proposed by Khomeini in 1970s as a form of governance in which the supreme leader is a religious cleric and carries out executive power. 4.Najaf: Central city in Iraq known for the concentration of Shi’a political power. In this city, Khomeini developed the idea of ‘Islamic government’ by delivering lectures and distributing recorded materials in the period between 1969-1970.5.“Island of Stability”: In 1978, President Carter named Iran the ‘island of stability’ underthe rule of the Shah. This statement demonstrated Carter’s ignorance to the conditions in Iran and revealed a reluctance in the Shah to admit that the country is on the verge of collapse.6.Grand Ayatollah Shirazi: Assumed the position of ayatollah during the 1891 Tobacco Rebellion. Issued a fatwa stating the consumption of tobacco is un-Islamic. This sparked a national boycott that ended the Major Talbot’s monopoly and proved an ability to defeatEuropean power. 7.Persian: An Iranian ethnic group native to Iran and who are native speakers of the modern Persian language. Significant until 1935 when Reza Shah formally required foreign countries to call Persia by its native name – Iran.8.Rentier Economy: An economic practice in which a country with a plethora of natural resources allows foreign countries to privatize those markets. Because Iran did not have the infrastructure or economic means to develop production, Britain and Russia became the beneficiaries of Iranian resources in the late 20thand early 21stcentury.9.Bazaaris: Refers to the merchant class who competed against European powers for access to natural resources. With support of the ulama and intelligentsia, mobilized a revolt against concession that led to the Constitutional Revolution in 1905.10.Mozzafar al-din Shah: Appointed in 1896 Shah after the assassination of his father, Naser al-din Shah. Weak and ineffectual leader who created economic mismanagement and uproar after supporting liberal authorities.11.Russo-Japanese War: War between Russia (strong, unconstitutional) and Japanese (weak, constitutional) from 1904-1905. The loss of Russia generated a revolutionist
fervor in Iran that led to the Constitutional Revolution. Perfect opportunity for Iranians tostage a revolution because Russia appeared vulnerable and unable to protect the Quajar. 12.Majiles: In 1906, the Iranian constitution created a legislative body named the majiles. Began as a secular body of legislation, although now controlled by Guardian Council andSupreme Leader. 13.Anglo-Soviet Invasion: In 1941, Britain and Russia invaded Iran in response to WWII.