BEEIN-SITUVSEX-SITU - Zeglis 1 Samantha Zeglis Mr Kimmey IB Biology HL 14 October 2016 In-Situ vs Ex-Situ Measures for Honeybee Conservation Modern

BEEIN-SITUVSEX-SITU - Zeglis 1 Samantha Zeglis Mr Kimmey IB...

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Zeglis 1Samantha ZeglisMr. Kimmey IB Biology HL14 October 2016In-Situ vs. Ex-Situ Measures for Honeybee ConservationModern agriculture’s very existence depends on proper pollination. Currently, 90% of the pollination in the world comes from bees. In 1947, the United States contained 6 million honeybee hives. In 2008, the number was reported to be closer to 2.4 million(“Save the Bees”) . This 60% decline in population is due to a phenomenon known to beekeepers and apologists as Colony Collapse Disorder, or CCD. CCD, which affected 50% of failed hives in the 2006-2007 season, is defined as the phenomenon in which healthy adult worker bees vanish from a hive, leaving behind a queen, unhatched brood, and several nurse bees (“Colony”). There are several hypotheses as to why and how this occurs, although none have been proven to be the singular cause. The most likely explanation is a combination of these reasons. One possible explanation for CCD is the increased use of pesticides harmful to bees on crops that the bees pollinate. One type of these harmful pesticides is known as Neonicotinoids (“Colony”). These pesticides contain chemical bonds that create a high toxicity that kills insects, as pesticides are designed to do (Bonmatin). However, when dealing with pest removal, pesticide developers need to find a solution to eliminate threats to crops while also keeping the most important pollinators safe. Another explanation for CCD is the widespread use of genetically modified organisms, which are plants which have been scientifically engineered to have a specific trait that does not otherwise exist naturally (Gitlin). For example, a scientist mayengineer the genetic code of a sunflower with a pesticide so that the pesticide becomes part of the genetic makeup of the sunflower itself . Once the bee ingests the nectar of this modified organism, the pesticide enters the bee’s internal organs. This amount of

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