Final Exam Study GuidePolitics are the means by which power is employed to influence the nature and content of the governmental activities. The sphere of the political includes the activities of those in government, but also the actions of others. There are many ways in which people outside the governmental apparatus sick to influence it. It is intertwined with economics. Governmentis the enacting of policies and decisions on the part of the officials within a political apparatus. While in the past virtually all governments were headed by monarchs or emperors, in most modern societies, governments are run by officials who do not inherit their positions of power but are elected or appointed on the basis of qualifications.Authority is the government’s legitimate use of power. Those subject to a government’s authority consent to it.Democracyis a political system that allows the citizens to participate in political decision making or to elect representatives to government bodies. Political SystemsParticipatory democracy is a system of democracy in which all members of a group or community participate collectively in making major decisions. Decisions are made communally by those who are affected by them.Direct democracy, a form of participatory democracy that allows citizens to vote directly on lawsand policies; hold a referendum where the majorities express their views on a particular issue.Liberal democracies systems of democracy based on parliamentary institutions, coupled to the free market system in the area of economic production. Voters can choose between 2 or more parties in which the mass adult population has the right to vote.Constitutional Monarchies kings or queens who are figureheads. Real power rests in the hands of other political leaders. Formal power of the monarch is severely restricted. Communism One party rules. A set of political ideas associated with Marx as developed particularly by Lenin and institutionalized in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and some third world countries.Work the activity by which people produce from the natural world and so ensure survival. Work should not be thought of exclusively as paid employment. In traditional cultures, there was only a rudimentary monetary system, and few people worked for money. In modern societies, there remain types of work that do not involve direct payment (housework). Carry out tasks that require expenditure of mental and physical effort, with its objective the production of goods and services that cater to human needs. It is the basis of the economic system.