Study Guide Quiz 3Sex vs. GenderSex is the biological and anatomical differences distinguishing males from females, while gender refers tothe social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex. Gender is socially formed traits of masculinity and femininity. Gender Socializationis the learning of gender roles through the agents of socialization such as family, school, and the media.Gender Rolesvary from culture to culture, and they are socially created. Social Construction of Gender isthe learning of gender roles through socialization and interactions with others. We “do gender” in daily interaction with others – how we present ourselves as male or female through our choice of behavior, hairstyles, and tone of voicePatriarchy is the dominance of men over women. All known societies are patriarchal, although there are variations in the degree and nature of the power men exercise, as compared with women. One of the prime objectives of women’s movements in modern societies is to combat existing patriarchal institutions.Glass ceilingis a promotion barrier that prevents a woman’s upward mobility within an organization more prevalent in male-dominated occupations and professions. They need powerful “speakers” to intervene on their behalf – show their true value to open doors. Glass Escalator – men in female positions. They benefit from unfair rise within an organization and may face invisible pressures to move upSecond Shift is the work women do after work such as housework and childcare, which is why women work longer hours than men in most countries. It appears that women’s job opportunities are hamperedmainly by male prejudices. So long as most of the population take it for granted that parenting cannot beshared on an equal basis by both women and men, the problems facing women employees will persist. Male managers still discriminate based on the fact that women still have to juggle families and work. Because of persistent discrimination, higher unemployment, and lower wages, women represent 60% of the world’s 550 million working poor; in the developing countries, it is worse. They remain in the poorestpaying industrial and service sector jobs in all countries. Mothers less likely to be hired than non-mothers with same experience and qualificationsPrejudice and discrimination prejudice is the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resistant to change even in the face of new information. Discrimination – behavior that treats members of a group unequally; denies a group access to resources or rewards. Discriminationmust be distinguished from prejudice: individuals who are prejudiced against others may not engage in discriminatory practices against them; conversely, people may act in a discriminatory fashion toward a group even though they are not prejudiced against a group.
Scapegoats individuals or groups blamed for wrongs that were not their doing. Scapegoating is common when two deprived ethnic groups come into competition with one another for economic rewards.