Malaria_Maternal_Study - Cause of Problem Malaria is a...

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Cause of Problem Malaria is a protozoa – Multi-cellular organisms 5 Different Protozoa, 4 humans and 1 mostly in chimpanzee Cerebral Malaria is assoc. with P. falciparum Lives in red blood cells Major Vector is Anopheles gambiae 300 million people will suffer from clinical attacks of malaria each year How get sick and what is clinical picture like After a single sporozoite (the parasite form inoculated by the female mosquito) of Plasmodium falciparum invades a liver cell, the parasite grows in 6 days and produces 30,000-40,000 daughter cells (merozoites) which are released into the blood when the liver cell ruptures. In the blood, after a single merozoite invades a red blood cell, the parasite grows in 48 hours and produces 8-24 daughter cells, which are released into the blood when the red blood cell ruptures. “ Cyclical fevers b/c of RBC destruction, every 48/72 hours Children have seizures, hypoglycemia and coma Delirium Spleen enlargement May lead to severe anemia, coma, renal failure How do people die and what are the clinical causes Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria-responsible for more children deaths than any other agent in the world. ???????????????????? How many people die from this problem each year globally? Over 1 million, most of which are children under 5. Most affected demographic groups Poor rural Africans under the age of 5 But… Most black Africans show a natural resistance to infection with Plasmodium vivax due to the absence of a specific factor on the surface of their red blood cells. Persons with sickle cell trait also have resistance to Plasmodium falciparum and are relatively protected from severe illness. Most affected areas geographically African nations in rural areas How do rural/urban differences affect this problem and its distribution? Most infected areas tend to be isolated, especially because bednet providers can’t make it to rural areas and these people have little access to medical care
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Major control strategies Anti-malarial drugs and bednets 3 Groups of prevention drugs: Aryl-amino alcohols, antifols, artemesins Combinations are important, parasites resistant to many antibodies. Chloroquine and sulphadoxine pyrimethamine resistance is high in many regions Northern S. America and most of Africa are resistant to chloroquine If a mosquito doesn’t survive for 14 days after acquiring protozoa it can not spread the disease Do current control strategies focus more on prevention or treatment? Prevention, bednets, testing, and development of a vaccine Gender issues? – Males need to be educated on child health Male children may be more likely to be taken to clinics Decision making may be based on gender and who “owns” the child What health system components are most important to control of disease?
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  • Spring '08
  • red blood cells, cerebral malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, African nations, Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria-responsible

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