Cell Exam 1 Spring 2007 -

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Unformatted text preview: <fe'xj’li‘ :1?th ,. // t. p /,-: Name: 4" 7‘“ i”."l\i‘\ Class: 9114 [s ,(L Date: [3; ’Lc/ a / ID: A Cell Biology Spring 2007 Exam 1 Multiple Choice Idennfi) the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Most ATP is made in the cell by: ,d 9 mega at rib. 5 ”5: n A a. converting light energy from the Sun into ATP. .ngm my.” Smillfiiutfi‘ra, emu b. breaking down macromolecules into their “building blocks’for “subunits”? gig-“'5 9W.“ . 1‘77 . m' . - ~- . , . 33 M“. u- ”VG/W c. reductng macromolecular subunits and capturing the energy as ATP. “(ii-3"" {f L" i #37:.» oxidizing macromolecular subunits and capturing the energy as ATP. e. coupling the reductjgnjngpxidation of rn_z_1cromoleculansubuI1its,Attitlnfltfiljfwsynthesis,~ '72—‘54, _fl 2. ATrPiis the most used chemical ener “currency” inceTllsbettflfi‘sez—M it”: it is the most abundant nucleotide triphosphate. )4 $7) its “free energy” (or energy “content” in its terminal phosphate) is intermediate between V “high” and “low” energy molecules in the cell. c.” it has a “high” free energy. yd?“ it has a “low” fi'ee energy. e1“ ' it is capable to diffusing through all intracellular membranes and so is available in all parts of the cell. 1..-..._--—_\ _U_ 3. Elie metabolic reaction that enerate the most A a? 33.; ‘ biggmepheg‘fio latio / cam—mm: 4' "3'“ ’5.” IfiltochoglétigLQlEgLrgn transport V W" e. TCA cycle (Krebs cycle) v d. glycolysis e. fermentation. \. __ 4. In which cellular 29111131171339: grganelliii the TCA cycle located ‘? a. cytoplasm b. chloroplast “of? mitochondria ww—el- Md. plasma membrane e. nucleus . -L_ i ( i‘k ' . T04. cult/if; :‘m m o-Eflfiv‘n‘i 5. n . . . . : _ . - . --m‘~‘m—'rfi " .7 ...... WWW” _ .. qé MW / ta) when an near an) e. . b. electron tran_spgrt__>< . ‘ UL: M 5 \ c. TCA cycle K, d. oxidative phosphorylation X e. none of these four (4) reactions. 6. The genetic system of the mitochondria is contained in: ,.._.t.~ 7—..L ”a. the compartment known as the “matrix” Within the membranemalgmgup the “cristaei’. W 7,. , mm _:_—_—Tw—~—_;_m_m.._._ . r... the compartment between the inner” and “outer’_’___rnttocfl10ndr1a membranes. ‘ c. the “inner” membrane. iii§Edith:.‘iiunerimitochwdrial membrane. do not have their gmrgenetic system. dame: 1]): A 7. Which of the following properties of the mitochondria} “inner” membrane is important to the role of mitochondria 1n synthesrzmgATP ? a/ With its “porins”, molecules up to 5, OOIO MW caneasny pass through it. ,b? It has a high lipid content making it very “fluid” . VIt has minimal surface area which maximizes the mitochondrial surface area/volume ratio i3. important for proton concentration. . Myv (if) It has a very high surface area maximizing the amount of electron carriers, transporters, .1— - . I - and ATP synthase In__olecules. I/ It has a low permeability for electrons 8. Which of the following statements about mitochondrial size and shape ineukaryotic cells [S most “true” or [,1Expical”? ) =11 fia fin their smallest form, mitochondria are quite siIniiar in size and Isha It: to bacteria such .W _,.__,I_..__o WMHH_...__W \ ”fig 71111.. 11512111911511 f 111.11 .11,» 11 Mm 1 I. "\ ‘21.. oh” Mitochondria are one of the largest organelles In eukaryotic cells: andare similar 1n_ size' ~ 7 1. ML". \;1 to cellular nuclei. . '\ 31.44 :9: They are long” filamentous 1n appearance stretching from one _sI_i_de of the cell __to_ the other. / 3 :3 They are nsually spherical__ or. globular In shape, and 21130111112 urn in diameter. Y. They are like hollow cylinders about 0. 2- 1 um in diameter and 2—Iflmm.length,.with their thlQWr‘ ‘inside” continuous with the cytoplasm _(cytosolI 3 9. In the presence of _oxygen a fillyhnctioning and: ‘happy’ (it has everything it needs) TCA cycle generates what moiecularprgducts ? 11715 p.101 ,5- .M . . 1 J. 1,1. . 1. a. ATP and wnter. ' ‘ L b. NAD and FAD, ATP and C02. Mom NADH, FADE-I2, G_TP and Q93. d. NAD and FAD, and 002. e. NADH and FADHZ, and C02. . In the presence of oxygen, a fully firnctioning and “happy’_’ mitochondrial Electron Transport system -’ \. generates what molecular products ? ‘ {gr—f: / __a. ATP and water. -- ”If“ 1193f“ ibr NAD and FAD, ATP, and coz 1’17? 11” M111- ,2 NADH and FADI-I2, ATP and water. 1/ ——7’ dr NAD, FAD and water. ,A _e.’ acetyi- CoA, NADH, FADHZ, ATP, and C02 / I , M__ What property is common to all mitochondrial “Electron Carriers” ? l! : Ia. I/Ihjymmnmmommmg capable of being reversibly oxidized and reduced. ”—7: They Iargahle to bereversrbiy—redueed. / 45 e1“ hey contain organic ring structures. 7 1 d. They are found within or extend throughw the elipid bilaye r of the mitochondrial % membrane. :2 1’ ‘ lame: ID: A 12. One strong piece of experimental evidence supporting the Chemiosmotic Mechanism for ATP synthesis in ,.u ' .chondria and chloroplasts” is: 7 gr“ . . Totally blocking electron transport in a subtragmentisolated from mitochondrial inner x'f/ membranes, but creating an artificial proton gradient across the membrane of this subfragment allowsATP to be made if ADP and inorganic P is added. @l’BJocking electrgllfiflmmmflziduflligfikfiflfimjhfifiafiwninlhe presence of \ Mania?- c. An inhibitor of substrate level phosphorylation blocksiAlflsynthesis‘. >< An uncouplersuch_as TDNE: dogsnot prevetltVATP synthesis. ‘ \ffi’ Measuringjthe pH ofthethylakoidlumen in the presenceoflight showed that thispr \5 was higher than the" pH inthe‘compartment/solution surrounding the‘tmhylakoid. _«l§ Experimental smies analyse-inadmisffcst91mg:ifigelgsagatraqsggg inhibitors} (such as antimycin A or azide) on the gatefirxtentofoxidatinn.ofindiyiduail Veleetroncarriers in mitochondria showedthat when a specific inhibitorwas added in the presence of oxygen audaasource ofelectrdi-Tsi a. All ofthecarriers became fully oxidized. 6% All of theficarriers became fully reduced. T c. There was a gradient. of oxidation, with the carriers “closest” to the source of electrons being mist oxidized. d. AH ofithe carriers upstream of the carrier inhibited try/the specific inhibitor became fully /..\ oxidized. ‘\‘7 3,7 e.) All'of_ the carriers upstream of the carrier inhibited by the specific inhibitor became fully "J' redgged. 14. ATP synthase is: at a single protein capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. ‘! -b. a soluble, non-membrane multi-protein complex capable of acting as an ATPase in the m presence of ATP. _:~,s 6-.“ a myfiitprotein complaasatsadingflnuughamsmbmngcapahmmmmgpmmns, . 2 , n "i V; AER inorganic P. fittm mm; {vs a») ”3-” $34,114.?“ fife-{33° mitqshondriaand ehlerpplasts. but not in bacteria. 4W .a. a P}? ,e’ isfa “rotary” molecular “motor’iwhich directly‘uses the transport of electrons to “turn” “'1.” J “"i and thus catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic P. 15. Which of the following statements is fiQT correct.httermmsgfimmpatingflgmthesis—immitochondria with that in chloroplasts ? a/ in chlorop153t§,'pf0tons are pumped into theinner-most compartment of the chloroplasts. b.‘ the PMF energy in chloroplastsis muchmmgjbfledtq bystltgprgtgyvgradient than ( __.._.. is mercaseunimtochoudna. “\w/Ze’ff) flL‘ZATP synthesejfzmotor” in chioropiastsiedirectlyfi driven bythe light energy absorbed g/ ... _, bx by mmgntaiéfin ihflalcvoid embrane comparedibtiei'mfischondriai,ATP.synthase “motonwhich is ugljgyt driyen. d. /the nansp-ofiofan:lecnon pair in the mitochondria can maximally generate 3rATPs, whereas in chloroplaststhecomparable minusculyMLATP. e.\/ TthJiportion of the ATP synthase in bomtochondiigamigchlgroplastsjs in the analoggpi organelle compartment (the matrix in mitochondria, and the stroma in chloroplasts). ‘ . Two of the above _Xe Chaim of the following statgmentsl is NOT true about the nuclear envelope? 16 Which of the following tenets is consid_erecl_ to lggpart of the Cell Theory? 11/ All organisms are composed of one or more cells. fbé The cell 15 the structural unit_ of life for most: but not all organisms M Cells can arise only by division from a ‘preex15t1ngcell $11 Cells can arise independently [email protected] of the above 17. Which of the following 15 true for both prokzuyotes and eukaryotes? a. They are composed of macromolecules. / b. They ac uire _éLlldJlSfl ‘ .: C/ ye. They consist .oimacromolecules thatare of. aimiformsize. . Most of their mightisfiujomacmmolecules. é) Two of the above 18 The basic difference between eulcaryotes and prokaryotes 1s: ,a.’ Prokaryotes convert sunlight. to energy through photosynthesis, while eukaryotes cannot use sunlight as an energy source. g/‘Rukaryotes, but not prolcnfyotes1 can respond to external stimuli. .2?- £2 gEukaryotes, but not _prokaryotest have a membrane surrounding their nuclei. /e/ Prokaryotes. lgut not eukag/otes: have a complex cytoskeletal system. 19. Which of the following statements is NOT true about cell membranes? a. akThey contain cholesterol which helps maintain membrane rigidity. b. )4 They serve as a barrier to prevent large amounts of water from entering or exiting the c311. “7%, ”g?! They contain hydrophilic fatty acid chains. -"fl. They contain polar head groups. I: . l The nuclear _gnyelnpectormsacontinuousssurface arou the enetic material of the cell. b: The outer nuclear membrane 1s continuous with the membrane of the endoplasmic reti/uluin c .kTh§_111ner_ and outer membranes are fused at the nuclear pores. dyc The space between the mner and outer membranes 1s continuous withjhev lurnen of the endoplasmic reticulum. F? e. Two of the above. KW Proteins that are synthesized on 21. During protein synthesis 2.” mRNAis translated into proteinonrihosomembatsmdihesmoothER. iribgscxntes of% the ER. 1:” Ves1cles wgontaining newly synthesized proteins bucl _ofit from the ER and fuse with mitochondria. 11’ Newly synthesized proteins traffic randomly to mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lysosornes. e. None of the above. of the rou h ER accumulateinjhejumen 22. Du x a {a ring the lifetime of an organism fa.” Cells undergo apoptosis, which is the destruction of the cell by another cell. a 153 Cells will go through may ficeljlicycles in which they will replicate their DNA and divide to forntnew .daughtercells. Mani _c___e_lls will die through necrosis, which is also called programmed cell death. Most cells that die will not be replaced. Two of the above. 23. Which of the .followingisNOIa function of membranes? compartmentalizaticn /( a. b. scaffolding for biochemical reactions / c. selective permeability barrier -/ (1. transmission of external stimuli v” a Q None of the above __ 24. Whighgq‘f‘the following is the most aceurate description of thestructureofmfimbranes? a? a single layer of finds ’ a lipid bilayer with phospholipid tails facingthe water on each surface of the 4A membrane 3.] 3.; a Mwith phospholipid headskfacin the water on eachgsprface of the , " membrane d.” a lipidtrilagvgflithphospholipid heads facing the water on each surface of the membrane :3” a protein bilayer 25. Membrane-associatedcarbehydrates c. d. What kind of membrane pro arj’qnlxpresent on the extracellular face of plasma membranes. are onlxpresent on theintraceliular face of plasma membranes. are only present on the nuclear envelope. are only present op mitochondrial membranes none of the above. tein penetrates into the hydrophobic part of thelipid bilayer? ‘; integrafiaretemw - f lipid-anchored protein _ g [/‘N‘ ., Q. peripheral proteins ’- “a” . r I; b and C fi 3 and b 27. at kindfiimenlbrane protein is fggnd entirely outsidethe‘bflwrpnthgfixttacellnlar‘omm hoplasmic surface? These min; wiatedflith the merrihranesurfacebxnoncoxafintbonds. a. b. a @mripheral proteins //' integral protein lipid-anchored protein d. 7 band c .. " B. a. b. c. "7&3 C. aand b 28. Which analytical techmniguegan be‘usedb’tggetermine if a protein jsiganintegralumembrane protein? Lineweaver—Burk plot Michaelis—Menten plot hydrophilicity plot hydrophobicity or hydropafliy plot titration plot 1me: 29. You have fused a mouse cell and a human celt and then treatedthefiisedeell.withspecifigantibodies that are ID: A covalently___ linked to fluorescent dyes (antibodies to mouse proteins — green; antibodiesrtg human proteins ~— red). What does the cell look likei mmediately after fusion? fig? 5/ The cell is half red and half green. 0." The red and green labels are uniformly distributed across the entire membrane. The red and green labels were distributed 1n intermingled patches. df The red and green labels flash intermittently. e": The red and green labels are distributed in a swirling pattern 30. If a lipid 1s amphipathic ar it contains two hydrophobic regions. 13”” it contains two polar head groups. 16. it will reside exclusively on the cytoplasmic side of a plasma membrane. 6 :CD it can interact with both hydrophobic and hydrophiliemolecules. '—"/L‘/ 1V Li ids diffuse laterall; however, roteins do not g e. 7 Two of the above. . I-Jipids li‘:\ rarely have ”phosphate groups conslst 9f 11351317111 fatty acid tails attached to hydrophobtg head groups Two of the above so _ w. _. cg. ) can/have, fattyagid tails. that are either. saturated or unsaturated. 22. Which of the following statements is NOT true about peripherahmemhmrfiproteins? \ a. - ' Penpheralflgtginsmaxhemumts affix—E 'V eripheral prptesns non-cova , .can.b. so iated from the membrane with high salt. 5< ' eripheral proteinsarefietected 1n freezeIfracture m1 croscnpyasbumgssmlhflhpid bjLayer. \d/ Pgiphepal proteins on the cyto lasrni _face of the o integral membrane to, nd ad ter molecules within the lipid bila er and smas a f? SWELL network to helpmamfliusfi. . .Pfi- ejNone of the above. 33. According to the fluid-mosaic model of membranestructure .3” Proteins diffuse laterally 1n tLplane of the membrane however 119151;ch not difjase. l / Proteingndjipfisdiffiase iaterall in the lane of the membrane 1 d.’ the thud 10f the membrane ls independent of temperature 1:. two of the above. 34. Which oiéthefollowing observations dosflgflmgasgate thatjaflfimfmtemil 1&5 Fibroblasts with E-ca dherin do not bin figfihrflgblastsfli rerin. >13". Non adherent fibroblasts” transfected With E- cadheriflnyadhere to" each other. % Monolaygs of fibroblasts conta1n113g_E—cadherm dissociatewhenahtihodies to E- " cadherin are added. d a and c e None of the above. se in the plane of the membrane. m 35. Integrins ya; consist of two alpha chains that bind to a specific sequence of amino acids on a substrate molecule. J6: are a gapeofcadherin. ‘92:. do not require activation in order to bind to a substrate. *5; 5;? ”3115133? gays/from. insidejhjrgsll 1931M cellsi environment. 6. two of the above. 36. Which of the following does HQT happen...dudnfixflmsafiomofilmkocflufiomhbod vessels into the adj oiningtissuevspace? #7“ (if? Leukocfies puflshfitheinwaydhroughfle endotheligllayer of ceflilsby makingchannels , fiy’QLIthhe mmiddwawmflmlflfl- v6. The cruising leukocytes contain receptors for Ese'lvefictin and‘tra_nfis.i§mntlyrbintl to the activatgdggdotlieliicells. w. The activated endofileliaLceilsreleasesniat.letactimflngfactoLCBAE)which activates the integimflgawgmjflgg.lfiflkg9fl9§:. d-V") The,agtitgltgdjytegflgsgflhggyfiingleukocytes.bindtointcrcellular adhesion molecules (ICAM) on thefiendothelial cells. ' masthéififigigghg gratis: lining of thehlgfodicsselhegqmgjctmjyated ‘ and present P tin’on their cell surface; a. adhegens junctionswhichmform anrimpenetrablghéflifir. between two cells. These ' junctionsggfgmgg by ‘integrflaLmetnbraneproteins that bind very strongly to their l/ /’\ _ counterparts on the cells that form the junction. "ii-fia ’ {iij‘édherens junctionsfihat CQQICllQEEEQQHJQEQH QQiYfiyLLhfiflancfioasm. formed by cadherins, whichare integral membrane proteins thatbindtojdaptorinoiecules on the cytosolic face of plasma membranes. ' 6- GAP junctioasthat ,aligwtet—ttfisflaage 0f Somatsalcsmssfislls These functions are formed by cadherififiolecules that form a channel betvy‘eenthe cells. d. desmosomesrwhich‘ir'eithem ' ' ctio _ , cl ante J. at. two ofthe above. 3 8. Which of the followingis NOT true? elm/One function of celljnrlctlgnslsdtpjllgw small molecules to pass from one cell to another car ’ ‘MHV—W .. ' b./ One function of celliju‘nctions is to transmit si 533329951939 cells sordiatcells inthe s'far‘fi mag tan. b; cop; @EPEEQTjéihsitsstjyity- ”‘ r... @ Tighugwuaefionwiflauéll .ieyseiassljgghaatlzagis a. lstpfssshange ofsmau / “ moleculefiflegrflflecells." d'V Tight. juaFEQElfiPfiweefl the epitheliélssllfi lining the stomachasrpshgmtq$333511“ by in'ectin a mouse with fleleCtron dense water soluble compound-and observingthe location of thecompound. e. Two of the above. 39. The ECM an is 'ntraillular network that stabllges cells and gives threnggjheghgfiharagte—rifisgpe. EAL— mg”. m "I . ‘rovidesa. atlmaytor cell mi .ation. \, P. ./ P gr 3? is bound to cells via cadherin molecules. ' d’ contains transcnptlgn‘fagtprim prove mRNA production. e none of the above. 1]):A 40. Collagen fl“ is the most abundant protein of the ECM b. is the ma] orcomgonent otthfi..hfi5al.lanfina.which.is_a¢hick§hmm§1fl1&y 1 rec tors 0 >9: comes in several different grpes.A1]1mes of collagen made of fibrils consisting of double helices. ofnndividnal collagen. molecules. % aandb e. aandc fl___ 4]. Which _of the, following molecules 11min theilECMil' _a—A, La fibroneqtin, laminin, and proteoglycans ‘v' f _b/ fibronectin, spingolipids, and N~carns cm proteoglycans, cholesterol, and collagen 1dr selectins, fibronectin, and mucins it: PAF, mucins, and laminin ___ 42. Which of the followingisNQI1111e about bacterial celi walls? K Bacteria have a peptldoglycan cell wall because Mthey Wk environment. :bf Penicillin blocks bacteria] cefiéerflfi irreversibly binding to the enzyme 11E? _. crogsuhnlgslllefipobfacchaqd‘ephams that rnake 11p the bacterial cell wall. 1____ 5 /E_::' Penicillinase has been present in bacteria since penicillin was introduced as an antibiotic 1n___ the 1940’s, and therewhave walwaysmpbe,6;1:11,b_a_c_te_:;ig1 £19.11. are I‘CSlStant to penicillin. >(_ Bacteria become M pen1c1ll1n by p_r_od11cing enicillinase also known as beta- lactamase). Penicillinase cleaves. penicillinfio lean .1111 ldnge;bind1§11h¢.§nzyme that cross- -links theWIdEfihat—form the bacterial cell wall. e. Two of the above. 43. The celeallefplant cells a,./- includesucel11110se,whicl1 1s a fibrous materlal that consists of long gains of glucose monorners. hfiwmmggmaisspsofhmmfl. oses CC1.i_I_1s,,and.,_,ereins,-m c. increases in size as the plant cell grows by adding preformed sections of cell wall that are produced outside of the ceil. d. is an inert barrier that isolates the plant cell from it’s environment and prevents the ”,1 transmission of external signals into the plant cell. “’2‘ ’e. . " a and b ...
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