1 Greek and Arabic knowledge were not only assimilated from Spain, but also directly from the Middle East. The study of mathematics was flourishing in the Middle East, and mathematical knowledge was brought back by the crusades in the 13 th century. The decline of the Byzantine Empire after 1204- and its eventual fall in 1453- led to an exodus of Greek scholars to the West. These scholars brought with them texts and knowledge of the classical Greek civilization which had been lost for centuries in the West Indeed, the “end” of the Middle Ages, or rather the perceived division between the Middle Ages and the Reformation/Renaissance that historians have constructed, has played a large role in shaping our understanding of Jewish-Christian relations. In chapter 6 I will also argue that the traditional conception of the Renaissance and Reformation has distracted us from the fundamental continuities in relations between Christians and Jews into the sixteenth century. The second half of the sixteenth century
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