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April 21, 2016 Period 1: 1491 - 1607 I.Native american migration and settlement of North America, form complex societies by adapting to and transforming their environments II.Contact between Europeans, Native Americans and Africans - Columbian Exchange and social, cultural, political changes III.Contact, commerce, competing philosophies IV.Political A.Tribe chiefs 1.No concept of owning land, land is public B.Spanish colonization 1.Due to missionaries and defense bases 2.Black Legend a)Only true to some degree, civilizations created, were brutal C.Natives and Europeans misunderstand each other and their political system, cultures 1.Attempt at diplomatic negotiations D.Spanish armada 1588 - shift to British colonization of North America V.Economic A.Trade networks B.Lived by natural resources C.Wealth distribution more even D.Maize cultivation E.Hunter-gatherer economies F.Columbian Exchange - globalization1.Europe, Africa and North America G.Spaniard’s encomienda system - forced labor H.Europeans import slaves from Africa I.Geography shaped Native Americans by region J.Three sister farming K.Terris buildings L.Irrigation system and aqueducts M.Discovery of New World 1.Advances in sailing - caravel N.Plantation system - need for labor 1.Atlantic slave trade 1525 O.Joint-stock company 1.Virginia Company VI.Social A.2-10 million native americans B.Diseases widespread - smallpox, influenza C.Civilization peaked before Europeans arrived, no complex civilization D.Organized in tribes
1.Iroquois Confederacy E.Religion 1.Spiritual, not monotheistic but there is one god 2.Women religious leaders 3.Religious battles in New World a)European efforts to christianize natives F.Culture clashes between Europeans and Natives
April 22, 2016 Period 2: 1607-1754 I.European developed different colonization patterns influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and environments of settlement, as they competed with each other and Indians for resources II.British colonies in political, social, cultural and economic exchanges with Great Britain, encouraged stronger bonds and resistance to B’s control I.Political A.Spanish want to extract wealth - forced, conversion to Christianity, slaves, mingling (mestizos) B.French and Dutch want to trade, more diplomatic relations with Indians C.English want social mobility, economic prosperity and religious freedom - take land from Indians, agriculture D.As colonies get more profitable - imperial sponsors want greater control of profits and trade 1.Colonizers begin to resent interference, resistance to imperial control a)Experiences with self-govt. b)Evolving ideas of liberty c)Spread of European Enlightenment ideas d)Religious independence and diversity e)Perceived corruption in imperial system 2.Mayflower Compact 1620 - first governing doc (Pilgrims) 3.Order of Connecticut E.King Philip’s War 1675 (Metacom’s War) 1.Natives vs. English over land, resources, boundaries (at Plymouth) F.The Pueblo Revolt 1680 G. Locke’s Two Treatises of Govt. 1689 H.Queen Anne’s War 1702 (France vs. England each with Indian allies) 1.