Chapter+6 - Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy How...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy How Is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Human muscles contain two different types of muscle fibers That perform differently under different conditions HOW CELLS HARVEST CHEMICAL ENERGY The different types of muscle fibers Function either: Aerobically (with oxygen) Anaerobically (without oxygen) Consist of slow and fast fibers SLOW versus FAST FIBERS FAST Also known as fast-twitch fibers Contract more quickly Intense muscle activity Ex: weight-lifting and sprinters 2 SLOW Also known as Slow-twitch fibers Have repeated long contractions Slow muscle activity Ex: long distance runners Aerobically, uses O 2 Have many mitochondria Contain myoglobin reddish color seen in dark meat INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life Is the process by which cells produce energy aerobically C ellular respiration Makes ATP and consumes O 2 CO 2 H 2 O Glucose O 2 ATP ECOSYSTEM Sunlight energy Photosynthesi s in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria ( for cellular work ) Heat energy + + Figure 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION Photosynthesis uses solar energy To produce glucose and O 2 from CO 2 and H 2 O Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells and removes carbon dioxide Breathing provides for the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 Between an organism and its environment CO 2 CO 2 O 2 O 2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out Cellular Respiration Breathing Glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Lungs Figure 6.2 CELLULAR RESPIRATION A process in which the energy in glucose is transferred to ATP Allows organisms to use (release) the energy stored in glucose Makes ATP and consumes O 2 During the oxidation of glucose to CO 2 and H 2 O Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules Cellular respiration breaks down glucose molecules And banks their energy in ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 6 H 2 O ATPs Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide 6 Water Energy O 2 6 + + + Figure 6.3 CONNECTION The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities ATP powers almost all cellular and body activities Table 6.4 Oxidation reactions Loss of an electron or hydrogen atom Releases energy In photosynthesis Example H 2 O In Cellular Respiration Example glucose Reduction reactions Gain of electrons or hydrogen atoms Stores energy In photosynthesis Example CO 2 In Cellular Respiration Example O 2 Photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 + energy (reduced) (oxidized) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Cellular Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 (oxidized) (reduced) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (36 ATP) Cells tap energy from electrons falling from organic fuels to oxygen Electrons lose potential energy During their transfer from organic compounds to oxygen When glucose is converted to carbon dioxide...
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2008 for the course BIOL 1101 taught by Professor Mason during the Spring '08 term at Middle Georgia State College.

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Chapter+6 - Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy How...

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