13_PPTLecture_LEC+spr - Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve...

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    Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve CHARLES DARWIN
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    • Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted? The blue-footed booby Is a type of bird living in the Galápagos Islands 0
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    This type of bird possesses many specialized characteristics, called evolutionary adaptations Which are inherited traits that enhance its ability to survive and reproduce in its particular environment 0
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    DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution On his visit to the Galápagos Islands He observed many unique organisms 0 ure 13.1A
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    Darwin’s main ideas Can be traced back to the ancient Greeks Aristotle and the Judeo-Christian culture Believed that species are fixed 0
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    In the century prior to Darwin The study of fossils suggested that life forms change Geologists proposed that a very old Earth Is changed by gradual processes 0 CHARLES DARWIN
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    While on the voyage of the HMS Beagle in the 1830s Charles Darwin observed: Similarities between living and fossil organisms The diversity of life on the Galápagos Islands North America Europe Great Britain Africa Equator Asia Australia Tasmania New Zealand PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN The Galápagos Islands South America Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn Cape of Good Hope Andes Pinta Marchena Genovesa Equator Santiago Isabela Fernandina Florenza Española San Cristobal Santa Cruz Santa Fe Pinzón Daphne Islands 40 miles 40 km 0 0 Figure 13.1B
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    Darwin’s experiences during the voyage of the Beagle Helped him frame his ideas on evolution What does evolution mean? Descent with modification An ancestral species could diversify into many descendant species by the accumulation of adaptations to various environments 0
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    Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution •   His theory arose from several different His theory arose from several different observations: observations: 1. 1. Overproduction of offsprings Overproduction of offsprings Recognized that all species produced Recognized that all species produced excessive # of offsprings excessive # of offsprings 2. 2. Limited natural resources Limited natural resources Can leads to a struggle for existence among the individuals of a population 3. 3. Heritable variations Heritable variations Individuals whose characteristics adapt them Individuals whose characteristics adapt them best to their environment are most likely to best to their environment are most likely to
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    Darwin reasoned that natural selectio Results in favored traits being repr more and more and unfavored one and less in ensuing generations of organisms 0 2 main concepts: Species living today descended from ancestral species Natural selection
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13_PPTLecture_LEC+spr - Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve...

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